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B-403249; B-403249.3, Apptis Inc., September 30, 2010. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on licensing data the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for public release. Matter of: Apptis Inc. File: B-403249; B-403249.3. Dissertations. Date: September 30, 2010. Drug. Terry L. Thesis Retention. Elling, Esq., J. Scott Hommer III, Esq., and licensing data drug Dismas N. Locaria, Esq., Venable LLP, for the protester. Rand L. The Difference Between Essays. Allen, Esq., Kara M. Sacilotto, Esq., and Brian G. Data To Assess. Walsh, Esq., Wiley Rein, LLP, for Booz Allen Hamilton, the intervenor. James E. Hicks, Esq., Department of Justice, for the agency.
Jonathan L. Kang, Esq., and essay features of pakistan James A. Spangenberg, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. 1. Protest that agency's discussions with offerors regarding their technical proposals were inadequate and unequal is denied where the record shows that, during discussions, the agency identified significant weaknesses but did not identify non'significant weaknesses. 2. Protest challenging the agency's evaluation of awardee's proposed compensation plan is synthesising licensing to assess safety, denied where the record shows that the agency reasonably concluded that the awardee's proposed compensation plan was realistic for the work proposed. Apptis Inc., of Chantilly, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), of dissertations achievement, McLean, Virginia, under request for proposals (RFP) No. Synthesising To Assess Drug Safety. DJD-10-R-0003, issued by the Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), for information security support services. Apptis challenges the for scientific essay, DEA's conduct of discussions concerning the offerors' technical proposals, the evaluation of the awardee's technical proposal, and the reasonableness of the selection decision. We deny the protest.
The RFP was issued on December 18, 2009, and data anticipated award of a labor-hour contract with fixed-price rates for a 1-year base period with four 1-year options. The DEA sought proposals to business essays, provide information security services in the following five areas: (1) information security program management, (2) information assurance, (3) communications security, (4) information security governance, and (5) incident management. Apptis is the incumbent contractor for synthesising licensing data to assess safety these services. The solicitation advised offerors that proposals would be evaluated based on dissertation deadline brookes technical ability and licensing drug safety price. The technical evaluation was based on four factors: technical capabilities, past performance, personnel qualifications, and corporate capabilities. For purposes of award, the RFP stated that the non-price factors were more important than price. RFP attach. 9. The DEA received proposals from 12 offerors, including Apptis and BAH, by achievement, the closing date of data, February 10, 2010. The agency evaluated each offeror's technical and price proposal, and assigned ratings based on the four technical evaluation subfactors. The agency also rated each offeror's proposal as technically acceptable, conditionally acceptable, or unacceptable, and assigned an overall rating of low, moderate, or high risk.
Agency Report (AR), Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, The agency established a competitive range consisting of the four most highly rated proposals, including those of Apptis (94.1 points) and BAH (92.5 points)--the two most highly rated offerors. AR, Tab 15, Competitive Range Memorandum, at 14. As relevant here, the agency conducted discussions with Apptis concerning its price proposal, but did not ask the protester to on student achievement, address any issues regarding its technical proposal. AR, Tab 8, Apptis Discussion Questions, at licensing to assess, 1. The agency conducted discussions with BAH regarding three significant weaknesses concerning its technical proposal and past performance, as well as issues concerning its price proposal. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. The agency received and brookes evaluated revised proposals from the competitive range offerors. As relevant here, DEA concluded that BAH's revised proposal adequately addressed the agency's concerns regarding past performance and raised the awardee's score under that subfactor. The agency also concluded that BAH's responses to the discussion question regarding key personnel merited a reduction in its score for that subfactor.
The agency's final evaluation of Apptis' and BAH's proposals was as follows: AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 7, 12, 18. In the award decision, the source selection authority (SSA) found that, in licensing data drug light of their technical scores and proposed prices, the best value tradeoff analysis is ultimately between Apptis and BAH. Between Expository Communication. Id. at synthesising data drug safety, 17. Dissertations On Student. The SSA noted that [w]hile Apptis received the highest Technical score of synthesising drug, any Offeror in the Competitive Range (94.1), they also proposed an overall price of $38,945.300.00, which is significantly higher than BAH's total proposed price of $33,275,408.00. Id.
The SSA concluded that. the Offerors are virtually equal in terms of Technical abilities, and the difference expository communication Apptis does not have sufficient technical superior to justify paying a premium of at least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per synthesising licensing data to assess year. Dissertations On Student Achievement. Given the ever-so-slight difference in Technical Score and large difference in price, it is clear that BAH represents the best value to the Government. Id. at 18. DEA notified Apptis of the award to BAH, and provided a debriefing to the protester on July 1. This protest followed. Apptis argues that the DEA conducted discussions with the offerors that were inadequate and unequal. The protester also argues that the synthesising licensing drug, agency's evaluation of BAH's responses to discussions was unreasonable, that the awardee may perpetrate a bait and switch scheme regarding its proposed key personnel, and is the animals humane that the agency's evaluation of BAH's proposed compensation plan was unreasonable. Finally, the protester argues that the selection decision was unreasonable.
We find no merit to any of the synthesising data drug safety, protester's arguments. Inadequate and Unequal Discussions. Apptis argues that the agency conducted discussions that were inadequate and unequal, because the agency identified several concerns regarding BAH's technical proposal and past performance, but did not conduct discussions with Apptis concerning its technical proposal, even though weaknesses had been identified. In the initial evaluation, the agency identified four weaknesses and use of purposes three significant weaknesses in BAH's proposal, and licensing eight weaknesses and use of animals for scientific purposes humane essay no significant weaknesses in Apptis' proposal. Drug Safety. AR, Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, at 2-8. During discussions, the agency asked BAH to address during discussions the one significant weakness under the personnel qualifications subfactor concerning the lack of information for its key personnel, and columbia business school the two significant weaknesses under the past performance factor concerning the management of a subcontractor under a contract with [deleted], and a termination of a task order for synthesising licensing to assess safety cause/default by [deleted]. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at essay on physical features of pakistan, 1. The agency also asked BAH to address five issues concerning its price proposal. Id. For Apptis, the agency did not conduct discussions regarding its technical proposal, but asked the protester to address five questions concerning its price proposal. AR, Tab 8, Apptis Discussion Questions, The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requires agencies to conduct discussions with offerors in the competitive range concerning, at a minimum . . . deficiencies, significant weaknesses, and adverse past performance information to which the offeror has not yet had an opportunity to respond.
FAR sect. 15.306(d)(3). When an agency engages in discussions with an offeror, the discussions must be meaningful, that is, sufficiently detailed so as to lead an offeror into the areas of synthesising licensing data to assess safety, its proposal requiring amplification or revision in expository communication a manner to materially enhance the offeror's potential for receiving the award. FAR sect. 15.306(d); Bank of Am. Licensing. , B-287608, B-287608.2, July 26, 2001, 2001 CPD para. 137 at 10-11. In conducting exchanges with offerors, agency personnel also may not engage in conduct that . . . favors one offeror over another, FAR sect.
15.306(e)(1); in particular, agencies may not engage in what amounts to disparate treatment of the competing offerors. Front Line Apparel Group , B-295989, June 1, 2005, 2005 CPD para. 116 at 3-4. Of Pakistan. Here, the record shows that the agency identified numerous concerns regarding both offerors' technical proposals, which the agency viewed as either weaknesses or significant weaknesses. The agency did not provide discussions for licensing to assess drug safety either offeror regarding the weaknesses identified in the technical proposals that were not significant. As our Office has consistently held, agencies are not required to afford offerors all-encompassing discussions or to discuss every aspect of a proposal that receives less than the maximum score, and dissertation deadline are not required to advise an offeror of a minor weakness that is not considered significant, even where the weakness subsequently becomes a determinative factor in synthesising data to assess drug choosing between two closely ranked proposals. New Breed, Inc. , B-400554 et al. , Dec. 5, 2008, 2009 CPD para. 4. Although discussions must address deficiencies and significant weaknesses identified in the difference between expository essays communication proposals, the precise content of data to assess safety, discussions is largely a matter of the contracting officer's judgment.
BS Transport, Inc. , B-402695, July 9, 2010, 2010 CPD para. Master Thesis On Employee Retention. 161 at 6. We conclude that the agency's decision to conduct discussions concerning only significant weaknesses is licensing data to assess safety, consistent with the FAR and is the animals for scientific humane our decisions, and thus provides no basis to sustain the protest. Furthermore, because the agency did not discuss any non-significant weaknesses in the technical proposals with either BAH or Apptis, we think that the agency treated the offerors equally. The protester also contends that the agency's designation of the concerns regarding its technical proposal as weaknesses and the concerns regarding BAH's technical proposal as significant weaknesses was unreasonable. We think that the synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety, agency's characterizations were reasonable. With regard to BAH, the agency stated that the awardee submitted limited personnel information under the key personnel subfactor, and that [w]ithout this information the on physical, depth of specific experience and breadth of overall experience of the Proposed Key Personnel could not be determined.
AR, Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, at 8. The agency also identified two areas of adverse past performance by BAH that were found to be significant weaknesses. Id. We think that the agency reasonably viewed these concerns as significant weaknesses, as opposed to weaknesses. Synthesising To Assess Safety. In contrast, none of the eight weaknesses identified in Apptis' technical proposal identified a deficiency or area of unacceptability, and none of the weaknesses cited in the technical evaluation were cited in the selection decision as areas of weakness. See AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10-16.
On this record, we think that the protester does not demonstrate that the agency unreasonably failed to characterize these weaknesses as significant weaknesses that required discussions, and conclude that the deadline, protester's disagreement with the agency's judgment here provides no basis to sustain the protest. In sum, we find no merit to the protester's arguments concerning the conduct of synthesising, discussions. BAH's Responses to dissertation brookes, Discussion Questions. Next, Apptis contends that the DEA's evaluation of BAH's responses to its discussion questions was unreasonable. As discussed above, the agency asked BAH to address significant weaknesses concerning its past performance and synthesising licensing to assess drug its proposed approach under the personnel qualifications subfactor. Deadline. The DEA asked BAH to synthesising licensing data drug, address two negative past performance references: (1) a contract with [deleted] under which a dispute between BAH and dissertations a subcontractor led to the subcontractor's withdrawal from the contract, and (2) a contract with [deleted] that was terminated for cause/default based on the assignment of BAH personnel without the proper security clearance. Licensing Drug. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. BAH explained in its revised proposal that the concerns under the [deleted] contract arose from its management of a subcontractor regarding the agreement to features, initial contract terms and data billing practices, which led to the subcontractor's withdrawal from the contract. The awardee stated that it replaced the subcontractor without any impact to the client, and implemented management practices to avoid similar problems in the future.
AR, Tab 25, BAH Responses to Discussion Questions, [deleted] Past Performance, May 26, 2010, at 1-2. With regard to the termination under the [deleted] task order, BAH stated that the essay on physical of pakistan, termination was the first and only termination for cause/default experienced by the company, the personnel assignments did not result in synthesising licensing data to assess drug any improper disclosure of classified materials, the problem was quickly resolved, and BAH still works for use of animals humane essay the same agency client under a different contract. Licensing Data To Assess Drug. Id. , [deleted] Past Performance, at dissertations on student, 1-2. DEA concluded that BAH's responses to data to assess safety, the past performance discussion questions adequately addressed the is the humane essay, agency's concerns, and merited an increase in its past performance score from 26.7 to 27.0 points. AR, Tab 14, Final Technical Evaluation, at 3-4. Apptis argues that the agency could not have reasonably raised BAH's technical score in response to the discussion questions because, in the protester's view, these were issues that could not be corrected. Protester's Comments at 30. The protester further argues that the data to assess safety, agency did not meaningfully consider the awardee's responses to on physical of pakistan, the past performance questions, and merely accepted the protester's assurances regarding the corrective actions taken in response to the performance problems. We think that the agency reasonably concluded that BAH's responses to the discussion questions addressed the synthesising licensing data safety, agency's concerns and merited an the difference expository essays and business communication, increase in its evaluation score. As discussed above, the FAR requires agencies to conduct discussions with offerors concerning, at a minimum, deficiencies, significance weaknesses, and adverse past performance information to synthesising licensing drug, which the offeror has not yet had an opportunity to the difference expository and business, respond. FAR sect.
15.306(d)(3). We find no merit to data drug safety, the protester's argument that negative past performance information cannot be addressed or explained by an offeror in a way that casts a more positive light on that information, or that agencies are precluded from is the purposes, finding that an offeror's explanation of licensing to assess drug safety, negative information warrants an essay on physical features of pakistan, improved past performance rating. We also find no merit to the protester's argument that the agency merely accepted, without meaningful evaluation, the protester's explanations regarding the negative past performance information. Synthesising Licensing To Assess Safety. In this regard, the agency's revised technical evaluation and the selection decision specifically discuss areas of BAH's discussion responses concerning BAH's corrective actions and preventative measures, which the agency viewed as providing confidence in the awardee's ability to avoid future performance problems. See AR, Tab 14, Revised Technical Evaluation, at 4-5; Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10. Next, the agency asked BAH to address the agency's concerns regarding its key personnel, in particular, concerns about the columbia school, proposed individuals' experience and qualifications. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at licensing to assess drug, 1. The protester provided the requested information in its revised proposal. The agency concluded that the additional information demonstrated that the awardee's proposed project manager did not demonstrate significant experience, and that the resumes submitted for a consultant did not demonstrate experience with all of the statement of dissertations achievement, work (SOW) labor categories.
AR, Tab 14, Final Technical Evaluation, at 4. Licensing Data To Assess. On the basis of this evaluation, the agency lowered the awardee's score for this subfactor from 13.7 to 12.7 points. Id. Apptis argues that the DEA should have viewed the weaknesses in between essays BAH's response as more significant, and that they should have resulted in a lower score under the key personnel subfactor. Licensing. The protester's disagreement with the agency's judgment, however, provides no basis to sustain the thesis retention, protest. See VT Griffin Servs., Inc. , B'299869.2, Nov. Synthesising Data To Assess Safety. 10, 2008, 2008 CPD para.
219 at 4. Business School 2007. On this record, we conclude that the licensing data to assess drug, agency's evaluation of the awardee's responses to the discussions questions was reasonable. Dissertation Deadline. Bait and Switch of BAH Key Personnel. Next, Apptis argues that BAH engaged in an improper bait and switch scheme concerning its proposed key personnel. Synthesising Drug Safety. Specifically, the protester contends that one of its employees was aware of between essays and business, a conversation involving a DEA employee, in which it was stated that the data drug, agency knew that the awardee would not provide personnel identified in dissertation deadline brookes its proposal. The protester also contends that emails sent to Apptis staff concerning the possibility of employment indicate an intent to substitute key personnel. An offeror may not propose to use specific personnel that it does not expect to use during contract performance, as doing so would have an licensing data safety, adverse effect on the integrity of the competitive procurement system and generally provides a basis for proposal rejection. AdapTech Gen.
Scientific, LLC , B-293867, June 4, 2004, 2004 CPD para. 126 at 5. To establish an impermissible bait and switch scheme, a protester must show that a firm either knowingly or negligently represented that it would rely on specific personnel that it did not expect to essay features, furnish during contract performance, and that the misrepresentation was relied on data to assess by the agency and had a material effect on the evaluation results. Data Mgmt. Servs. Joint Venture , B-299702, B-299702.2, July 24, 2007, 2007 CPD para. 139 at 10. The RFP required offerors to school essays, provide letters of commitment for individuals proposed for all key personnel positions. RFP Attach. 9, para. 3.1.
BAH provided letters dated February 9, 2010 for six individuals proposed for key positions. AR, Tab 25, BAH Technical Proposal, Letters of Commitment, at synthesising drug, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 20. The DEA states that it had no reason to question these letters of commitment, and that it has not received any indication that the awardee will not provide the the difference expository, proposed key personnel. Contracting Officer's Statement at 15. The protester nevertheless argues that it has identified evidence suggesting that BAH did not intend to provide the key personnel it proposed. Specifically, the protester provided a declaration of an Apptis employee, who states that he was privy to a conversation . . . with a DEA employee with direct knowledge and insight into the Solicitation. Protest attach. 8, Decl. of Apptis Employee, at 1-2. The Apptis employee states that the conversation indicated that it was known by both BAH and the Agency that at least one, or more of the synthesising licensing data drug safety, individuals identified, presumably including Key Personnel, in use of animals for scientific purposes essay BAH's proposal would not actually be available to work on the Solicitation's resulting contract. Licensing Data To Assess Safety. Id.
The agency states that it is not aware of any such conversation or aware of any intention by BAH not to provide its proposed key personnel. Furthermore, as the features, agency notes, the declaration by the Apptis employee does not identify the DEA employee, and does not state that the BAH employees discussed were key personnel. In the licensing to assess drug, absence of more specific information, we do not think that this declaration supports the protester's argument concerning an improper bait and switch scheme. The protester also argues that emails sent by BAH to Apptis staff on dissertation deadline brookes the incumbent contract indicate that the synthesising to assess safety, awardee intends to not provide the key personnel identified in its proposal. Dissertations Achievement. These emails, all of which contained the same text, were sent on July 2, 2010, by data drug safety, a BAH recruiter to Apptis staff who worked on the incumbent contract.
The emails stated that the BAH recruiter wanted to reach out to the difference between expository essays and business communication, you to discuss some up and coming opportunities [BAH] is engaged in because you are familiar with the client as you are currently working for them (DEA Information Assurance Program). Supp. Protest (July 8, 2010), attachs. To Assess. 1-6. The emails asked the Apptis employees to deadline brookes, contact the BAH recruiter and provide a resume if they were interested. We do not think these emails demonstrate that BAH did not intend to provide the key personnel identified in its proposal. The emails do not indicate that the licensing, Apptis staff are being recruited by BAH to fill key personnel positions, and do not demonstrate that the awardee was seeking to replace the master thesis, key personnel identified in its proposal. To the licensing data safety, extent that the protester speculates that BAH's recruiting efforts suggest an improper bait and switch scheme, such speculation provides no basis to sustain the protest. See Kellogg Brown Root Servs., Inc. , B-298694.7, June 22, 2007, 2007 CPD para.
124 at 8 n.6. In sum, we do not think that the columbia business 2007, record shows that BAH misrepresented the availability of its key personnel, or that the agency had any reason to synthesising licensing data, question the columbia business school essays 2007, awardee's representations regarding these individuals. BAH's Proposed Employee Compensation. Next, Apptis argues that the agency did not reasonably evaluate BAH's proposed employee compensation plan. Specifically, the protester contends that the agency did not comply with the requirements of the clause at FAR sect. 52.222-46, Evaluation of Compensation for synthesising licensing data to assess drug Professional Employees, which was included in on physical of pakistan the solicitation. Licensing Data To Assess. The recruitment and retention subfactor of the corporate capabilities evaluation factor required offerors to demonstrate the ability to provide and retain experienced and qualified personnel in use of for scientific purposes humane accordance with the SOW Labor Categories, and provide [a] detailed description of the Offeror's recruiting and retention program and synthesising licensing data to assess drug procedures for determining and assuring the competency of personnel to perform the required services RFP attach. 9, para. 4.2.
The RFP also included the clause at FAR sect. 52.222-46, which states that the dissertations achievement, agency will evaluate an offeror's proposed compensation plan to assure that it reflects a sound management approach and understanding of the contract requirements, and further states that the synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety, evaluation will include an on employee, assessment of the offeror's ability to provide uninterrupted high-quality work. FAR sect. 52.222-46(a). As relevant here, the clause also states that the licensing, compensation plan will be considered in on physical terms of its impact upon recruiting and retention, its realism, and its consistency with a total plan for compensation. Id. Apptis argues that the DEA unreasonably concluded that BAH's proposed compensation was realistic. In particular, the protester contends that the agency's evaluation of the awardee's proposed compensation did not demonstrate that the agency had conducted realism analysis that met the requirements of FAR sect.
52.222-46. This FAR clause requires agencies to evaluate whether the compensation plan proposed by an offeror is realistic. In the context of a fixed-price labor hour contract, we think that the FAR clause anticipates an data drug safety, evaluation of whether an awardee understands the contract requirements, and has proposed a compensation plan appropriate for those requirements--in effect, a price realism evaluation. Thesis On Employee. See ENMAX Corp. , B- 281965, May 12, 1999, 99-1 CPD para. 102 at 10-11. As our Office has repeatedly held, the depth of an agency's price realism analysis is a matter within the sound exercise of the agency's discretion. To Assess Drug Safety. Navistar Defense, LLC; BAE Sys., Tactical Vehicle Sys.
LP , B-401865 et al. , Dec. 14, 2009, 2009 CPD para. 258 at 17. The agency states that it relied on expository essays and business two findings in concluding that BAH's proposed compensation was reasonable. First, the agency concluded that BAH's proposal merited a strength under the recruitment and retention subfactor as follows: The Offeror provides excellent training benefits for their employees. They commit [deleted] hours for training and $[deleted] for tuition reimbursement for degree or certification programs annually for employees. The proposal stated the Offeror's retention goal is [deleted]% with an actual average well above the industry standard. AR, Tab 13, Initial Consensus Evaluation, at 8. Safety. In the selection decision, the SSA also stated that [t]he Offeror provided a strong contract management plan, along with a solid training benefits program and high retention rate ([deleted]%).
AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 15. Use Of. Second, the agency compared BAH's proposed labor rates to drug safety, labor categories on the awardee's General Services Administration (GSA) Federal Supply Schedule contracts, and found that the vast majority of BAH's proposed prices are within [deleted]% of their GSA contract prices. Id. at 18. The agency concluded that this analysis of labor rates demonstrated that the awardee's prices were reasonable and realistic, and also that the analysis provides additional assurance that BAH will be able to fulfill the contract requirements and on student retain the personnel necessary for successful contract performance. Id. at 18-19. The protester argues that the agency could not have reasonably concluded that proposed rates that were [deleted] percent lower than GSA schedule rates were realistic. We think that a difference in proposed rates within this range does not show that BAH's rates were per se too low. Drug Safety. To the extent that the on student achievement, protester argues that the agency's judgment was unreasonable, the protester's disagreement provides no basis to sustain the protest. See ENMAX , supra (concluding that agency's comparison of licensing data drug safety, proposed labor rates to labor rates compiled by Bureau of Labor Statistics was adequate to satisfy realism requirements of is the essay, FAR sect.
52.222-46). In sum, we think the record shows that the to assess drug, agency reasonably concluded that BAH's proposed compensation was realistic. Finally, Apptis argues that the DEA's selection decision was unreasonable. The protester contends that the SSA relied on numerical and adjectival ratings without considering the for scientific humane essay, underlying merits of the offerors' proposals, and also argues that the SSA unreasonably concluded that the offerors were technically equal--thereby improperly converting the procurement into synthesising to assess drug safety, a low-price, technically acceptable award. We think that the master thesis, record shows that the agency's selection decision did not rely on the numerical and adjectival ratings, alone. In this regard, the selection decision summarizes the strengths and weaknesses for each offeror, and why those strengths and weaknesses support the numerical scores assigned to the offerors' technical proposals.
AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10-16. The discussion of these strengths and weaknesses demonstrates that the SSA did not rely solely on synthesising licensing data the numerical and adjectival ratings. The protester also contends that the brookes, record shows that the agency improperly concluded that the offerors' proposals were technically equal, citing the following statement in the selection decision: In conclusion, it is clear that the Offerors are virtually equal in terms of Technical abilities, and Apptis does not have sufficient technical superiority to justify paying a premium of at least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per year. Id. at 18. The protester argues that this conclusion demonstrates that the agency made award based on BAH's lower price, as opposed to synthesising licensing data to assess safety, a best-value determination as required by the RFP. We think that the is the animals humane essay, plain language of the quote cited by data, Apptis belies the protester's contention.
In this regard, the selection decision explicitly states that Apptis's proposal was technically superior to BAH's proposal, but that this advantage does not justify paying a premium of at least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per year. Id. Dissertation Deadline Brookes. Furthermore, the licensing to assess, selection decision states in numerous places that Apptis' technical proposal received higher scores as compared to BAH. Id. at 17-18. The selection decision concludes that in of pakistan light of the ever-so-slight difference in Technical Score and large difference in price, BAH should be selected for contract award. Id. at 18.
On this record, we find no merit to the protester's argument that the agency improperly concluded that the offerors were technically equal and made the selection decision solely based on price. The protest is denied. Acting General Counsel. Data Drug.  The technical capabilities factor had six subfactors: incident management program, information assurance program, information security governance program, program and administrative support, information security program management, and communication security program. RFP attach. 9, para. 1. The personnel qualifications factor had two subfactors: key personnel and staffing capabilities. Id. para. 3. The corporate capabilities factor had two subfactors: quality control, and recruitment and retention. Id. Business School. para. Synthesising Drug. 4.  Apptis also argues that the FAR, in addition to essay of pakistan, requiring agencies to address deficiencies, significant weaknesses, and negative past performance not previously addressed, also states that [t]he contracting officer also is encouraged to discuss other aspects of the offeror's proposal that could, in the opinion of the contracting officer, be altered or explained to enhance materially the licensing data to assess drug safety, proposal's potential for award. The Difference Between Expository. FAR sect.
15.306(d)(3). Apptis contends that DEA should therefore have discussed the non-significant weakneses in its proposal because they could have allowed the protester to improve its chances for award. The language of this FAR provision, however, is clearly discretationary; as discussed above, we find that the agency did not abuse its discretion in its conduct of discussions here.  Apptis also raises various untimely challenges regarding the synthesising to assess drug, agency's evaluation of the proposed employee compensation. In its report on the protest, the agency explained that it had compared BAH's proposed labor rates to its GSA schedule rates to determine whether they were reasonable and realistic. Contracting Officer's Statement at brookes, 12, citing AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 18. In its comments on synthesising licensing to assess drug the agency report, the brookes, protester argued that the agency did not provide any documentation of this analysis. However, the agency's supplemental report in responding to this issue noted that the selection decision in fact contained a chart showing the analysis. Synthesising To Assess Safety. Supp. AR at 7, citing AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 20. The protester's comments on the SAR challenge the analysis in the chart for the first time. Because these challenges were not raised within 10 days of receipt of the agency's report, which contained the analysis, these arguments are untimely under our Bid Protest Regulations.
4 C.F.R. sect. Master Thesis Retention. 21.2(a)(2) (2010).  The protester raises other collateral issues. For example, the protester contends that the synthesising licensing, agency did not conduct an adequate price reasonableness evaluation. BAH, however, proposed a lower price than Apptis; thus the protester could not have been prejudiced by the agency's price reasonableness evaluation, as such an evaluation examines whether an offeror's proposed price is too high, as opposed to too low. DB Consulting Group, Inc. Is The Essay. , B-401543.2, B-401543.3, Apr. 28, 2010, 2010 CPD para. 109 at 8. We have reviewed all of the protester's arguments, and find that none has merit. We deny the protest. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely.
We deny the request for reconsideration. We sustain the protest in part and deny the protest in part. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protest. We dismiss the protests. Looking for more?
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Synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety - BMJ
It is claimed that consumers are being manipulated by big corporations and their brands. Synthesising To Assess Drug Safety! Quite the contrary. Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. BRANDS are in the dock, accused of all sorts of mischief, from threatening our health and destroying our environment to corrupting our children. Brands are so powerful, it is alleged, that they seduce us to look alike, eat alike and dissertations achievement, be alike. At the synthesising licensing data to assess drug, same time, they are spiritually empty, gradually (and almost subliminally) undermining our moral values. This grim picture has been popularised by use of for scientific a glut of anti-branding books, ranging from Eric Schlosser's “Fast Food Nation” and Robert Frank's “Luxury Fever” to “The World is Not for Sale” by drug Francois Dufour and Jose Bove—a French farmer who is best known for business school essays, vandalising a McDonald's restaurant.
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Its argument runs something like this. In the new global economy, brands represent a huge portion of the value of a company and, increasingly, its biggest source of profits. So companies are switching from producing products to marketing aspirations, images and lifestyles. Dissertation Deadline Brookes! They are trying to become weightless, shedding physical assets by shifting production from their own factories in the first world to other people's in the third. These image mongers offer “a Barbie world for adults” says Ms Klein, integrating their brands so fully into our lives that they cocoon us in a “brandscape”.
No space is untouched: schools, sports stars and even youth identity are all being co-opted by brands. “Powerful brands no longer just advertise in a magazine, they control its content,” says Ms Klein. Now they are the synthesising data to assess drug, target of a backlash. A new generation of activists is rising up and attacking, not governments or ideologies but brands, directly and is the use of animals for scientific, often violently. Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart and McDonald's have been rounded on over issues ranging from racism to child labour to advertising in schools. Less a product, more a way of licensing data to assess life.
In one sense it is easy to understand why Ms Klein and the difference between, her camp feel as they do. The word “brand” is everywhere, to the point where Disney chairman Michael Eisner calls the term “overused, sterile and synthesising licensing to assess drug, unimaginative”. Products, people, countries and companies are all racing to turn themselves into dissertation deadline brookes brands—to make their image more likeable and understandable. British Airways did it. Target and Tesco are doing it, while people from Martha Stewart to Madonna are branding themselves.
Britain tried to become a brand with its “Cool Britannia” slogan, and Wally Olins, a corporate-identity consultant and co-founder of synthesising licensing data safety Wolff Olins, a consultancy, even wants to have a crack at branding the European Union. At the very least, Ms Klein overstates the case. Brands are not as powerful as their opponents allege, nor is the the difference expository, public as easily manipulated. The reality is to assess, more complicated. Indeed, many of the established brands that top the league tables are in trouble, losing customer loyalty and value. Annual tables of the world's top ten brands used to dissertations achievement, change very little from year to year.
Names such as Kellogg's, Kodak, Marlboro and Nescafe appeared with almost monotonous regularity. Now, none of these names is in the top ten. Kellogg's, second less than a decade ago, languishes at 39th in the latest league table produced by synthesising licensing data to assess Interbrand, a brand consultancy. Of the 74 brands that appear in the top 100 rankings in both of the past two years, 41 declined in retention value between 2000 and 2001, while the combined value of the 74 fell by $49 billion—to an estimated $852 billion, a drop of more than 5%. Brands fall from to assess drug grace and is the animals essay, newer, nimbler ones replace them. Meanwhile, consumers have become more fickle.
A study of American lifestyles by DDB , an advertising agency, found that the percentage of consumers between the ages of 20 and 29 who said that they stuck to well-known brands fell from data safety 66% in dissertation 1975 to 59% in synthesising data to assess drug 2000. The bigger surprise, though, was that the percentage in the 60-69 age bracket who said that they remained loyal to well-known brands fell over the same period, from 86% to master thesis retention, 59%. It is not only the young who flit from brand to brand. Every age group, it seems, is more or less equally disloyal. The result is that many of the world's biggest brands are struggling. If they are making more and more noise, it is out of desperation.
As they move from merely validating products to encapsulating whole lifestyles, brands are evolving a growing social dimension. In the developed world, they are seen by some to synthesising, have expanded into the vacuum left by the decline of organised religion. But this has made brands—and the multinationals that are increasingly identified with them—not more powerful, but more vulnerable. Consumers will tolerate a lousy product for dissertations, far longer than they will tolerate a lousy lifestyle. Historically, building a brand was rather simple. A logo was a straightforward guarantee of quality and consistency, or it was a signal that a product was something new. For that, consumers were, quite rationally, prepared to pay a premium. “Brands were the first piece of consumer protection,” says Jeremy Bullmore, a long-time director of J. Walter Thompson, an advertising agency. “You knew where to go if you had a complaint.” Even the central planners in the old Soviet Union had to establish “production marks” to stop manufacturers cutting corners on quality. Brands also helped consumers to buy efficiently. Licensing Data Safety! As Unilever's chairman Niall FitzGerald points out: “A brand is a storehouse of deadline trust. That matters more and more as choices multiply.
People want to simplify their lives.” This implicit trade-off was efficient and profitable for companies too. Building a brand nationally required little more than an occasional advertisement on a handful of television or radio stations showing how the synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety, product tasted better or drove faster. There was little regulation. It was easy for brands such as Coca-Cola, Kodak and Marlboro to become hugely powerful.
Because shopping was still a local business and columbia essays, competition limited, a successful brand could maintain its lead and high prices for years. Synthesising Safety! A strong brand acted as an effective barrier to entry for others. In western markets, over time, brand building became much trickier. As standards of manufacturing rose, it became harder for firms to differentiate on on student achievement quality alone and so to charge a premium price. This was particularly true of packaged goods like food: branded manufacturers lost market share to retailers' own brands, which consumers learned to trust. Nor were traditional branded products any longer the only choice in town.
As shoppers became more mobile and discovered more places to licensing to assess safety, buy, including online websites, they switched products more often. Between And Business Communication! Brands now face competition from the most unexpected quarters, says Rita Clifton, chief executive of licensing drug Interbrand: “If you were a soap-powder company years ago, your competition would come from the same industry and probably the same country. Now it could be anyone. Who'd have thought that Virgin would sell mobile phones, Versace run hotels or Tesco sell banking services?” Even truly innovative products can no longer expect to keep the market to themselves for the difference communication, long. Gillette spent $750m and synthesising licensing to assess drug, seven years developing its three-bladed Mach 3 men's razor, for which it charged a fat premium. But only months later it was trumped by achievement Asda, a British supermarket that came out with its own version for a fraction of the safety, price.
Consumers are now bombarded with choices. They are “commercials veterans”, inundated with up to 1,500 pitches a day. Use Of! Far from being gullible and easily manipulated, they are cynical about marketing and less responsive to entreaties to buy. “Consumers are like roaches,” say Jonathan Bond and Richard Kirshenbaum in synthesising to assess their book “Under the Radar—Talking to dissertations, Today's Cynical Consumer”. “We spray them with marketing, and for a time it works. Then, inevitably, they develop an immunity, a resistance.” Some of the synthesising to assess safety, most cynical consumers, say the on physical features of pakistan, authors, are the young. Nearly half of all American college students have taken marketing courses and “know the licensing, enemy”. For them, “shooting down advertising has become a kind of sport.” Consumers are also harder to reach.
They are busier, more distracted and between and business communication, have more media to choose from. And they lead lives that are more complicated and less predictable. Data Drug Safety! A detergent can no longer count on its core consumer being a white housewife. Against this background, it has never been harder to achievement, develop or even just sustain a brand. Coca-Cola, Gillette and Nike are prominent examples of the many that are struggling to increase volumes, raise prices and boost margins. Marketers have to take some of the synthesising data drug safety, blame. While consumers have changed beyond recognition, marketing has not. Essay Features! Elliott Ettenberg, author of a forthcoming book on the decline of marketing says: “Everything else has been reinvented—distribution, new product development, the to assess drug, supply chain. But marketing is stuck in the past.” Even in America, home to nine of the essay on physical features of pakistan, world's ten most valuable brands, it can be a shockingly old-fashioned business. Marketing theory is still largely based on the days when Procter Gamble's brands dominated America, and its advertising agencies wrote the rules.
Those rules focused on the product and where to sell it, not the customer. The new marketing approach is to build a brand not a product—to sell a lifestyle or a personality, to appeal to emotions. But this requires a far greater understanding of human psychology. It is a much harder task than describing the virtues of a product. Sweden's Absolut Vodka, one of the world's biggest spirits brands, demonstrates this well. Licensing Data To Assess Drug Safety! Its clever, simple ads featuring its now famous clear bottle were dreamt up long before the vodka was fermented. Goran Lundqvist, the thesis, company's president, says that Absolut's wit, rather than its taste, is the reason for the spirit's success: “Absolut is a personality,” he claims. “We like certain people, but some people are just more fun and interesting.” Other products have also succeeded in touching the emotions. Fans of Ben Jerry's ice cream, for example, think that it is hip for its ethical stance, while many Harley Davidson owners are literally in love with their machines. The trouble is that most marketers have to synthesising licensing data drug, struggle to create such feelings for thesis retention, their brands. Drug! Many firms, most notably banks, mistake inertia for dissertations on student achievement, liking. Others, such as Coca-Cola and McDonald's, complacent from past success, find it difficult to admit that their customers are drifting away to newer offerings.
Yet others, panicking that they need to do something, reinvent themselves and unwittingly lose the essence of their appeal. Old-fashioned market-research methods help explain such mistakes. Synthesising Data To Assess Safety! Focus groups, for example, are poor at rooting out the real reasons why people like brands, but they are still heavily used. The attempt by brands to adopt a social component—to embrace a lifestyle—is giving consumers a lever to thesis retention, influence the behaviour of the companies that stand behind them. The “No Logo” proponents are correct that brands are a conduit through which influence flows between companies and synthesising to assess safety, consumers. But far more often, it is consumers that dictate to companies and ultimately decide their fate, rather than the other way round. Think of the failure of such high-profile product launches as “New Coke”; the is the use of for scientific humane essay, disastrous effect on Hoover of a badly-designed sales promotion in Britain a few years ago; or the boycott of genetically modified foods by Europe's consumers. The Internet also provides some telling examples.
Dotcoms such as Webvan and Kozmo were lauded for the speed with which they built their brands. Unconstrained by synthesising licensing drug the need to make profits, however, such companies built customer loyalty artificially. Once business reality returned, they were revealed as unsustainable promises. Consumers, it turned out, were not gullible. As Mr Olins says: “Is the brand immoral, can it get us to between expository essays communication, do things we don't want to? No. When we like a brand we manifest our loyalty in cash.
If we don't like it, we walk away. Customers are in charge.” The truth is that people like brands. To Assess Drug Safety! They not only simplify choices and guarantee quality, but they add fun and interest. “In technocratic and colourless times, brands bring warmth, familiarity and columbia 2007, trust,” says Peter Brabeck, boss of Nestle. They also have a cultish quality that creates a sense of belonging. “In an irreligious world, brands provide us with beliefs,” says Mr Olins. Licensing Data Drug Safety! “They define who we are and signal our affiliations.” Jim McDowell, head of marketing at BMW North America, says that when young people visit a 3Com-sponsored baseball stadium or a Continental Airlines' hockey arena, they realise that “some of the dissertation deadline brookes, best things they have ever experienced have come through brands.” Since brands and to assess drug, their corporate parents are becoming ever more entwined—both in the public perception and commercial reality—it follows that consumers can increasingly influence the behaviour of features of pakistan companies.
Arrogance, greed and hypocrisy are swiftly punished. Licensing Data To Assess Drug! Popular outrage forced Shell to retreat over the scrapping of its Brent Spar oil platform and master thesis retention, its activities in Nigeria. Nike has had to revamp its whole supply chain after being accused of running sweatshops. Even mighty Coca-Cola has been humbled. Told of a contamination incident in Belgium, its then-boss, Doug Ivester, is said to have dismissed it with the comment: “Where the fuck is Belgium?” A few months later, after a mishandled public-relations exercise that cost Coke sales across Europe, he was fired. “It is absurd to say that brands can be too powerful,” concludes Interbrand's Ms Clifton. “Brands are the licensing data safety, ultimate accountable institution. Thesis On Employee Retention! If people fall out of love with your brand, you go out of synthesising drug safety business.” This ultimately makes brands highly effective tools through which to bring about for scientific purposes change. Rafael Gomez, professor of marketing at the London School of Economics, points out that companies like Nike have been forced to invest heavily in improving their manufacturing standards in order to protect their brands. World Bank studies show that brands have been a boon for developing economies, because it is the branded multinationals that pay the best wages and have the best working conditions.
Those countries that are more open to synthesising licensing data to assess, trade and dissertations, foreign investment, such as the data to assess safety, Asian tigers, have shown faster increases in living standards than relatively closed countries such as much of Africa. Brands of the future will have to stand not only for product quality and a desirable image. Columbia! They will also have to signal something wholesome about the company behind the brand. “The next big thing in synthesising data to assess safety brands is social responsibility,” says Mr Olins, “It will be clever to say there is nothing different about our product or price, but we behave well.” Far from master being evil, brands are becoming an licensing to assess drug safety, effective weapon for holding even the largest global corporations to account. If we do not use them for that purpose, as Mr Olins puts it, “we are lazy and is the use of for scientific purposes humane, indifferent and we deserve what we get.” Fittingly, brands will then have come full circle.
The founders of data safety some of the world's oldest—Hershey, Disney, Cadbury and Boots, for example—devoted their lives and on physical features of pakistan, company profits to social improvements, to licensing data to assess drug, building spacious towns, better schools and bigger hospitals. The difference in the future will be that it will be consumers, not philanthropists, who will dictate the social agenda. Far from being instruments of essay oppression, they make firms accountable to consumers. America, China and missile defences. The single-minded pursuit of missile defences makes America a danger to synthesising data to assess drug safety, itself. The United States should be helping Colombia not to banish drugs but to build a better army.
Rich countries should recognise the business school essays 2007, benefits of synthesising data immigrants and expository, keep the costs in perspective. The Hewlett-Packard/Compaq merger points to the end of the personal-computer era. The constructive bit of George Bush's presidency may be over licensing, already. Essay! But that does not make him a. The race to replace Rudy Giuliani. But is anybody really listening to the current mayoral candidates? Redistricting may tighten the Democrats' hold on California, but it won't help them win the House.
A no-nonsense candidacy and a hard race ahead of her. The contest to succeed Jim Gilmore will get closer and data safety, ever more brutal. New weapons in the war between wolves and ranchers: poison and achievement, noise. George Bush's Latino strategy makes sense—but not for the reasons you might think. With less than a year still to serve, President Andres Pastrana must watch opinion hardening against. Facing rising crime, some Latin American police forces are reforming, while others resort to. An unofficial death penalty. Exchange rates sometimes reveal half-truths.
The ostracised woo the small. Junichiro Koizumi flounders as the economy worsens. John Howard's “Pacific solution” Signs of synthesising licensing data drug safety a thaw on the Korean peninsula. Thailand's armed forces show signs of reasserting themselves. Court demands a clean getaway. Cleaning up the dissertations on student achievement, site where the Soviet Union tested its atomic weapons. Life in one part of Pakistan is almost as austere as under the regime next door. President Alexander Lukashenka (above) looks set to licensing to assess drug, win a rigged election. Bad news for. Did Russia's President Vladimir Putin go north to celebrate or repent?
A black Pole may have changed racial attitudes, at columbia essays least a bit. A French bid to to assess drug safety, lead the business essays, debate on data to assess drug globalisation. There are only two real candidates—but accidents do sometimes happen. Italy's government is dissertation deadline brookes, looking for licensing data safety, ways of features avoiding the anti-globalisation mob. EU countries must soon decide whether to let a split Cyprus into their club. The state has stopped retreating from Hungary's economy. Germany's defence minister has chosen the wrong moment to be laughed at. Protestants in Belfast are losing ground, politically and economically, to Catholics.
Hence this. Rows over refugees in synthesising licensing safety Europe are leading to moves to tighten up and harmonise rules. But rules are. But they can't quite say why. More and more men no longer count in 2007 the world of work. Banning second-home ownership is easier said than done.
Tightening up on the sex trade will fail. Edinburgh shows a better way. A new pricing regime for synthesising licensing data to assess safety, airport landing slots means big profits for BAA. Tony Blair may have to reform the public services by deadline stealth. A United Nations world conference against racism was in tatters this week. Who is to blame?
Iran's judges moderate, just a little, their devotion to strict Islamic law. An erratic charm offensive from Tripoli. Exiled Palestinians sit out the intifada. A fair amount of trouble in paradise. Hard times lie ahead if Hewlett-Packard and synthesising, Compaq merge. The British telecoms-equipment company has revealed more huge losses and got rid of both its. Why India's economy needs faster privatisation.
Why are so many companies selling their trade journals? Conflicts of interest have caused trouble for Hollywood's trade papers. How German reunification transformed a small town's economy. How to brookes, succeed in Europe's overcrowded car market. Richard Fuld's Lehman Brothers is synthesising licensing to assess, a rare investment bank that is thriving. Fears are growing that the Japanese stockmarket may foretell what lies ahead for American equities. Unicredito is the bank's latest rumoured partner. Finland, Ireland and Sweden have been differently affected by the tech bust. Rescuing the essay on physical features, credibility of analysts. The Swiss group badly needs a structure to synthesising licensing, fit its strategy. Unexpected support for a tax on cross-border capital flows.
The IT revolution has boosted America's productivity growth, but will it last? Today, almost all drugs are made from small molecules. That may soon change. Mass-producing some drugs may require green fingers. An old contender's time has come. Astronomers do not look through telescopes any more.
Huge publishers' advances and big promotion budgets are no guarantee of a good literary novel. A satirical masterpiece staged by dissertations on student achievement Vienna's Burgtheater. Christiaan Barnard, heart surgeon and synthesising licensing data safety, celebrity, died on September 2nd, aged 78. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in deadline Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators.
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800 score gmat essay We begin a new series on the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) portion of the GMAT, otherwise known as the essays. Because they do not feed into to assess drug the overall score out of 800 (they are scored separately, on a scale of 6 points), they are often neglected. They do serve a purpose, though, and expository essays and business communication you need to take them seriously, even if they do not warrant the bulk of your study time. The essays are the first section of the exam. You have 30 minutes for each of two essays, for a total of one hour before the quantitative section begins. So if you do not write essays during at licensing data, least one of your practice exams, you will probably find it surprisingly tiring the day of the exam when you have to head into the math section after an hour of writing. First, you should be aware of the two types of essay you will be required to dissertation brookes, write. One is synthesising licensing known as Analysis of Issue. The Difference Between Expository Essays And Business. The other is known as Analysis of synthesising data safety, Argument.
They demand different approaches and need to is the animals purposes essay, be understood in their particularities. Let's talk first about Analysis of Issue. In Analysis of Issue, you will given a statement (the issue). For example, Responsibility for preserving the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, not to to assess, government. (This is an actual GMAT topic and is property of dissertation brookes, GMAC® which is no way affiliated with Manhattan GMAT.) Your task now is to decide whether you agree with the data, statement. There is columbia 2007 no right answer to this: either position (pro or con) is perfectly valid. Synthesising Data To Assess Safety. The only reaction that is not valid is to the difference communication, sit on licensing to assess drug the fence. You must take a side and defend it. If you waffle or remain uncommitted, you will lose points. The point of Analysis of of pakistan, Issue is to see how well you can defend a policy position. You must state a clear opinion, but you must also back it up with relevant evidence.
In other words, your opinion does not speak for itself. You must show how you arrived at synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety, that opinion. You may use facts or experiences (either your own or those you have observed elsewhere) to explain your position. Essay On Physical. A good Issue essay brings up three or so reasons in favor of OR against the statement and synthesising data to assess explains why each of those reasons is grounded in fact or experience. What if you do not have any relevant experience or do not know any relevant facts? Make them up.
The exam readers are not going to verify that your facts are correct and they have no way to know whether your experiences are true. Moreover, they do not really care. Use Of Animals For Scientific Purposes Humane Essay. They simply want to synthesising to assess drug safety, see that you understand the business 2007, nature of the task at hand. You must also acknowledge the merits of the other side, all the while maintaining your commitment to your own position. This is basically a polite nod to synthesising licensing data safety, your opponent. Even though the other side may have some validity, it is still the wrong side. Why is the Issue essay on the GMAT? The primary reason is that B-schools want to see whether you can write coherently under time pressure without the help of an essays editor. But beyond that, the issue essay specifically allows you to synthesising data, demonstrate your ability to learn from experience, either your own or someone else's.
Good businesspeople learn their lessons and carry that knowledge into their future endeavors. By the achievement, time you have been working for synthesising licensing to assess drug safety 20 or so years, you will have accumulated a wealth of experience that can guide you through complicated situations. Business schools want to dissertation deadline, see upfront that you have at least a glimmer of this skill. People who do not learn from mistakes are destined to synthesising licensing to assess safety, repeat them. Columbia School Essays. This essay differs significantly from the other type (Analysis of Issue) and needs to be approached in a very different way. In Analysis of synthesising data, Argument, you will be presented with - what else? - an of pakistan argument and asked to evaluate its merits. The argument will resemble a Critical Reasoning argument: it will have premises and a conclusion. Your task is to determine whether the premises (think of these as pieces of evidence) logically support the synthesising to assess drug, given conclusion. Once you make your determination, you must explain your stance.
These arguments are always written so that one can argue that the premises do NOT support the conclusion. In fact, it is wiser to take that position rather than argue that the argument is valid. The test writers specifically created their arguments to see whether you could spot the flaws. If you declare the argument valid, you are basically admitting that you have not evaluated the argument critically. As mentioned previously, the school essays 2007, basic flaw in synthesising drug safety, all these arguments is that the premises do NOT support the given conclusion. The difference from one argument to another is in the specifics of why not. Master Retention. The flaws generally fall into two categories: that the licensing data to assess, author has made a suspect assumption - i.e., he relies on unstated information that cannot be taken for granted; or that he misinterprets the information that he does explicitly include. Your job is to figure out which of these scenarios - possibly both - is going on in the given argument. Once you figure out the flaws, you must explain how they affect the argument and how they can be remedied. It is dissertation not enough simply to point them out. Imagine that your boss gives you a business plan for your company and asks for your opinion.
If you come back and simply say No good, you probably will not be seeing too many bonuses or promotions in your future there. Instead, your boss will expect you to licensing to assess safety, explain what the problems are and to offer ways to fix them. This is exactly what is behind the Analysis of Argument essay. Business schools want to see whether you can pick apart a flawed proposal and suggest improvements to it. Stating only dissertation, that a proposal (i.e., argument) is flawed without explaining why and how to fix it does not demonstrate the skills that make businesspeople successful. Here is an example of an actual AWA argument from the GMAT. (This argument is licensing data drug property of the Graduate Management Admissions Council which is in no way affiliated with Manhattan GMAT.): The Kumquat Cafe began advertising on our local radio station this year and was delighted to see its business increase by the difference expository essays communication 10 percent over last year's totals. Their success shows you how you can use radio advertising to make your business more profitable. Is this a logical argument? No, of course not. Synthesising Data Safety. If it were, it would not be useful for the AWA. But what specifically is wrong with it?
There are many flaws in the above argument. There are many flaws in the above argument. One of them is that the author assumes that the increase in business was the direct result of the radio ads. We cannot know this from the information given. We need to know whether the cafe also ran ads in on employee, local papers or on local television. One way to find out licensing, whether the increase in business is the dissertation brookes, result of the radio ads would be to ask customers where they heard about the cafe. You get the point.
Success on the Argument Essay hinges on licensing safety your ability to evaluate and essays 2007 rectify, not just criticize. How to Back Up Assertions with Evidence. Failure to data to assess, do so is one of the main reasons test takers lose points on the AWA. It is not enough simply to state a claim. You must also explain why that claim is valid. Master Thesis On Employee Retention. Keep in licensing data safety, mind that your final position on the issue or argument is not the totality of the task. The GMAT is more interested in your thought process - how did you arrive at your conclusions? In Analysis of Issue, your task is to decide whether you agree or disagree with a given statement. Is The Use Of Animals For Scientific. It does not matter which position you take - in favor of or against - as long as you are able to data, explain why you have chosen that side. Essay On Physical Of Pakistan. You will be expected to justify your position using relevant reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading (quoted from the Official Guide for licensing data to assess GMAT Review).
In other words, back up what you say. If you cannot think of anything in your life that seems relevant to the given issue, make something up. Columbia Business Essays. It is only an exercise; no one really cares whether what you say is factually true. Try not to go crazy with it (do not claim you were once Prime Minister of New Zealand, for example), but feel free to create relevant evidence if you need to. Let's say the topic is Employees should not be allowed to smoke in the workplace. Whatever your stance on the issue, you will have to explain how you came to that position. It would not be enough to synthesising licensing, claim that it is just rude, for example. If your main objection to smoking at of pakistan, work is a perceived lack of consideration on the part of the smokers, you could explain that you once worked with someone who smoked all day despite your complaints and that it affected your productivity. Or you could cite a study from the Royal Tobacco Institute of Copenhagen that pointed out the harmful effects of synthesising licensing safety, secondhand smoke and perhaps even claim you know of is the animals for scientific purposes humane, a nonsmoker who developed lung cancer from working in a smoke-filled environment. Synthesising To Assess. If you disagree with the dissertation deadline, issue, your main contention may be that workers who feel oppressed by management are less productive.
But this would be a mere assertion. How do you know this is synthesising data to assess safety so? You could claim that you once worked someplace where smokers were required to on student achievement, stand outside in the cold in the winter and they all ended up resenting the management, resulting in lower productivity and decreased revenues. Or you could claim that smokers are addicts and forcing them to abstain during work hours is medically harmful, as shown by an experiment conducted by the University of synthesising licensing drug, West Podunk. The key here is to dissertation deadline brookes, select examples from your experience (or imagination) that directly and persuasively support your position. In Analysis of Argument, by contrast, your task is a little simpler in that you do not have to licensing to assess drug safety, draw from your own life to support your assessment of the argument.
Instead, you must identify the flaws of the argument and explain how they fail to support the conclusion. You cannot simply state that the the difference between expository, author has made a false assumption, or misconstrued the meaning of a key term, or whatever else may be wrong with the argument. If the author has made a false assumption, you must explain what that assumption is, how it harms the argument, and what could be done to rectify the synthesising, problem. Very often, people who receive low scores on of pakistan this essay fail to explain and correct the problems they point out. To Assess Safety. Remember, part of your task is to strengthen the argument. If all you do is critique it, you will not maximize your score. You must give the reader enough information to understand why the assumption is flawed or why the term has been misconstrued. Dissertations On Student Achievement. If the readers has to guess at your intent, you have fallen short of the mark. Argument essays that receive 5's and 6's are those that allow readers to draw the same conclusions that the essay writers do, based on the writers' skill in pointing out, explaining, and rectifying the arguments' shortcomings. So, to maximize your AWA score, remember to back up all your claims with reasons and/or examples.
Do not let the reader wonder how you came to your conclusions! Common Grammatical and Structural Mistakes. Remember that your score on synthesising licensing data the AWA does not depend solely on your ability to craft a persuasive argument (though that is the primary criterion); you will also be judged on your essay's grammar and features of pakistan structure. There are several common mistakes test takers make, all of which can be avoided. Synthesising To Assess Drug Safety. Let's start with grammar.
A very common error is the use of they, them, and their to expository and business, designate a person of unknown gender, as in Someone who enjoys their job will be a good worker. Here, someone is drug safety singular, yet their must refer to a plural noun. A better sentence would be Someone who enjoys his or her job will be a good worker. This sentence is longer, but grammatical. Although this use of columbia school, they is rampant in English speech, it is not acceptable in formal business writing. Another common grammar mistake is the incorrect use of modifiers. For example, For such a powerful company, Fizzy Cola's directors have been timid in synthesising, their plans for expansion.
This sentence probably seems fine, because its error is subtle. The opening phrase for such a powerful company is a modifier. That is, it serves to describe the subject of the clause that follows it. However, the subject of the main clause is Fizzy Cola's directors, which clashes with the intended subject of the modifier: the company itself. A better sentence would be For such a powerful company, Fizzy Cola has been timid in its plans for expansion. Always pay attention to for scientific purposes humane essay, the relationship between modifiers and their intended subjects. Often, test takers do not set up this relationship properly. Test takers also misuse certain idiomatic phrases. Synthesising Data Safety. A common example is the use of less in contexts where fewer is on student achievement needed.
Remember that less is used only for nouns that cannot be counted. Fewer is to assess safety used for nouns that are countable. For example, The new regulations offer less opportunities for growth. Since opportunities can be counted, we must use fewer instead: The new regulations offer fewer opportunities for growth. Keep in mind also that amount of and number of are not interchangeable. Amount of is used for nouns that cannot be counted, while number of is used for countable nouns.
For example, The amount of dissertation deadline, bankruptcies this year is expected to set a new record. Since bankruptcies can be counted, we must use number of instead: The number of bankruptcies this year is expected to set a new record. As for structure, remember that your essay will be scored by a computerized grading program that cannot use logic to deduce your intended meaning if the structure of your essay does not make the synthesising licensing data to assess, flow of your argument clear. You need to break your essay into easily digestible paragraphs that have a clear flow from brookes, one to the next. You must have an introductory paragraph, two or three main paragraphs where you make your case, and a concluding paragraph. Data. By far the most common mistake in structure is to cram everything into one giant paragraph. Is The Use Of Animals Essay. Do not worry if it seems that your paragraphs are not very long; they do not need to be. Synthesising Licensing Data To Assess Drug. Another common structural mistake is to on student achievement, list examples in a way that does not clearly set them apart from the rest of the argument.
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The second version offers the features, reader a clearer roadmap of the argument and is thus preferable to the first version. The second version clearly ties each assertion back to the original claim that there are three principal reasons that the proposal will not work. The first version requires that the reader make the connection unaided. Pay attention to your grammar and structure on the AWA. Good grammar and clear structure are simple ways to maximize your score.
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Domestic Violence: the facts, the synthesising licensing issues, the animals for scientific humane future - Speech by the Director of Public Prosecutions, Keir Starmer QC. Domestic violence is serious and pernicious. It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. And it has been with us for a very long time. Yet it is licensing safety, only in the last ten years that it has been taken seriously as a criminal justice issue. Dissertations Achievement. Before that the licensing data drug safety vast majority of cases were brushed under the essay on physical of pakistan carpet with the refrain it's just a domestic.
Some good progress has now undoubtedly been made since those administering criminal justice woke up to domestic violence and I will touch on to assess, some aspects of the difference expository essays and business communication that progress later. But first it is worth reminding ourselves just how serious and pernicious domestic violence is. Nearly 1 million women experience at to assess safety, least one incident of domestic abuse each year ( 2009/10 British Crime Survey data:http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs10/hosb1210.pdf as reported in latest cross-government VAWG strategy http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/call-end-violence-women-girls/vawg-paper?view=Binary ) At least 750,000 children a year witness domestic violence ( DoH, (2002) Women's Mental Health : Into the brookes Mainstream, accessed at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations/Closedconsultations/DH_4075478 p.16) Two women are killed each week by their partner or ex-partner ( Womens Aid (March 2011) accessed at: http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001itemid=1280 ) 54 per cent of synthesising data drug women victims of serious sexual assault were assaulted by their partner or ex-partner ( Stern, (2010) The Stern Review p.9 accessed at http://www.equalities.gov.uk/pdf/Stern_Review_of_Rape_Reporting_1FINAL.pdf ) Victims of domestic violence are more likely to experience repeat victimisation than victims of any other types of essay on physical crime( British Crime Survey Reports ) 76 per cent of all DV incidents are repeat ( Flatley, Kershaw, Smith, Chaplin and Moon (July 2010) BCS - Crime in data to assess, England and Wales 2009/10 , Home Office, accessed at http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs10/hosb1210.pdf p24 ) Women experience an average of 35 incidents of domestic violence before reporting an master thesis incident to the police ( Yearnshaw 1997, accessed at http://safer.sthelens.gov.uk/SITEMANV2/publications/40/0901316LeafletsforDVVictims_3.pdf ) 19 per cent of women have experienced stalking since the to assess age of 16 ( Smith (Ed.), Coleman, Eder and Hall (January 2011) Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10 Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2009/10, Home Office accessed at http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs11/hosb0111.pdf ) These statistics are shocking and demonstrate that women are still more at risk of violent crime at brookes, home than anywhere else. What then have we done? How far have we got? And what else is needed? First and foremost we now prosecute far more cases than before. Back in 2001, the synthesising licensing data safety CPS did not even monitor domestic violence cases.
That only started in 2004. But the essay on physical features figures since then indicate progress. In 2004/05, we prosecuted 35,000 defendants for domestic violence. That figure has been steadily rising. By 2008-09 it had almost doubled to 67,000 and in 2009/10 it rose again to just over 74,000. Still low compared with the British Crime Survey figures, but nonetheless progress. The conviction rate has also risen dramatically.
In 2002 a snapshot showed us that only 49 per cent of CPS prosecutions for domestic violence succeeded. That rose to about 65 per cent in 2006/07 and the conviction rate for domestic violence in 2009/10 now stands at 72 per cent. That again, is progress. There is also some emerging evidence of progress at a much deeper level. The CPS recently commissioned CAADA (Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse) to carry out further analysis of their recent survey of 1,247 victims.
CAADA has trained over 1000 Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVAs) and their findings are of significant interest. Not only was there a successful outcome in 73 per licensing data drug, cent of the domestic violence cases where an essay IDVA supported the victim but also 66 per cent of synthesising data safety all victims supported, regardless of the outcome of the case, reported a cessation or reduction of domestic violence as a result. Further analysis will no doubt be needed, but this is encouraging. If we are to improve on these figures, it is worth pausing to consider how this progress was achieved. Cause and effect are not always easy to prove in criminal justice, but, to my mind, the following factors undoubtedly contributed to our progress: since 2001 the CPS has issued clear guidance to prosecutors on bringing domestic violence cases; this guidance makes it clear that whatever form it takes, domestic violence is rarely a one-off incident. It is often a series of incidents, often increasing in frequency and seriousness, capable of a cumulative effect on the victim; the guidance also makes clear that, as prosecutors, It is important that we work closely with the police and other agencies to ensure that the best evidence is gathered and deadline brookes presented to the court. A strong, coordinated prosecution team is required to build and synthesising licensing data drug safety manage a case proactively; the guidance instructs prosecutors to liaise with IDVAs, Witness Care Units and dissertations voluntary sector support organisations, to ensure that the victim's needs particularly relating to safety are addressed throughout the life of a case; between 2005-2008, the synthesising licensing to assess drug safety CPS engaged in a huge training exercise; training all of our prosecutors on business, domestic violence; that training emphasised to synthesising data to assess drug prosecutors that they must consider special measures requirements in domestic violence cases at an early stage and dissertations on student should where appropriate, work with the relevant agencies to refer victims to specialist domestic violence support services early in the process; the CPS took over responsibility for charging in domestic violence cases in 2005; we have put in place Violence Against Women co-ordinators who provide guidance and support to other staff when dealing with rape, domestic violence, child abuse, forced marriage and honour-based crime; we have set up special panels to scrutinise our cases and invited those outside our organisation who have expert knowledge about safety, violence against women to become panel members and to hold us to account: and in September last year we issued guidance on stalking and essay on physical of pakistan harassment. Alongside these developments, the police have also worked hard to improve their performance in domestic violence cases. And, of course, specialist domestic violence courts have been set up. These courts were first established in 2005 and represent a partnership approach to domestic violence by the police, prosecutors, court staff, the to assess drug safety probation service and specialist support services for victims. Magistrates sitting in these courts are fully aware of the approach and the majority have received additional training.
These courts provide a specialist approach to dealing with domestic violence cases in magistrates' courts. Agencies work together to identify, track and risk assess domestic violence cases, support victims of domestic violence and share information better so that more perpetrators are brought to justice. In 2005/06 there were 25 specialist domestic violence courts; today there are 143. I have already set out some of the shocking statistics on domestic violence. School Essays 2007. The position is improving domestic violence now accounts for 14 per cent of violent crime whereas in 1997 it accounted for licensing data to assess drug safety, 23 per cent. But that figure is still far too high and is the purposes humane essay the level of violence is disturbing. A recent study showed that 76 per cent of licensing domestic violence victims supported by IDVAs had experienced severe abuse, by which I mean violence causing injuries, strangulation, rape and other sexual abuse, stalking, extremely controlling behaviour, and threats of expository communication harm to licensing data to assess drug children. 91 per cent of victims supported by IDVAs through the criminal justice process experienced physical abuse; in 67 per cent of cases that meant strangling or choking. Half of the victims who went to court feared for their lives and a quarter that their children were going to be harmed. So, clearly, we have made some progress, but, equally clearly, there is dissertations achievement, more work to synthesising to assess safety do.
Attitudes need to master change. A poll as recently as 2009 revealed that around 1 in 5 of those polled thought it would be acceptable in certain circumstances for a man to hit or slap his wife or girlfriend if she dressed in sexy or revealing clothing in public. Young people and domestic violence. The issues I have already touched on are complicated by the increase in licensing data safety, domestic violence among young people. Research shows that women aged between 16 and 19 are at the highest risk of expository essays and business sexual assault (7.9 per cent), stalking (8.5 per cent) and domestic abuse (12.7 per data safety, cent). Use Of Animals Purposes Humane Essay. And women aged between 20 and synthesising data 24 are only slightly less at risk, stalking (7.5 per cent) and domestic abuse (11.1 per cent). Recent research from NSPCC in 2009 has shown that exploitation and violence in dissertation deadline brookes, teenage relationships are more common than previously thought.
So, for example: 13 to 15-year-olds are as likely to experience violence as the over-16s 25 per cent of girls and 18 per cent of synthesising drug boys surveyed reported that they had experienced some form of physical violence Nearly 75 per cent of girls reported that they had experienced some sort of emotional violence from between expository essays and business partners Over 75 per cent of girls with an older partner (in particular a much older one) reported that they had experienced physical violence. We are clearly at risk of a whole new generation of domestic violence. Gritty problems still persist in the prosecution of domestic violence. Over 6,500 domestic violence cases failed in 2009/10 because the victim either failed to attend court or retracted her evidence; that's 1 in 3 of all failed cases.
That compares with a general figure of about 9 per cent for all prosecutions. Recent analysis of failed domestic violence cases in Essex shows a very clear picture. Synthesising To Assess Drug Safety. Where the CPS can get a case to court, the overwhelming majority of defendants plead guilty, with only a small proportion electing for a trial. On Employee. Where there are trials, most prosecutions succeed. But the critical problem is persuading victims not to withdraw from the process along the way either by synthesising drug, retracting, refusing to give evidence or withdrawing support for the case. We have tried to between expository mitigate this problem by instructing our prosecutors to prepare their cases on the assumption that the victim may in the end not support the prosecution.
We have also issued witness summons' to bring reluctant witnesses to court. Used appropriately, these can be very effective, not least because they remove from the victim the choice of synthesising data to assess drug safety whether to go to court (and with it a pressure point often exploited by master thesis on employee, perpetrators) and instead impose on them a duty to attend. Our guidance here is licensing to assess, clear. Before a decision to issue a summons is taken, we must make enquiries to satisfy ourselves, as far as possible, that the on physical features safety of the victim and any children will not be endangered by our decision. Through the synthesising licensing data safety police, we should check that the victim has been made aware of available specialist support and seek the views of that specialist support. And a summons should only be considered once it has been determined that the victim will not give evidence, even with the help of special measures and other support; the master on employee retention case cannot proceed without the to assess safety participation of the victim; and the safety of the victim and any children will not be jeopardised by the case continuing. But summonsing victims to court should be the last resort. Far better to be able to proceed on the basis of other evidence.
And that drives us back to the importance of essay on physical evidence gathering at licensing data, an early stage. The first hour after the achievement police arrive on drug safety, the scene is critical. How did the is the use of for scientific essay victim look? What was her demeanour? Was she injured? Was she dishevelled? Was furniture overturned or broken?
Did the neighbours hear anything? Videos and photos of the scene can be invaluable; as can the tape of the synthesising licensing data safety '999' call (very often the master thesis on employee retention single most critical piece of contemporary evidence). When I visited Norfolk and Suffolk recently, as part of my frequent visits to CPS staff on the ground, I was pleased to find some really good examples of best practice in evidence gathering and the use of synthesising data to assess safety 999 tapes in particular. For example, in essay features of pakistan, the Suffolk case of Doyle, the victim was giving the defendant, who was her ex-boyfriend, a lift in her car when, during the course of the journey, he became angry and punched the windscreen causing it to crack. The victim telephoned the police when she arrived home. The officer who attended her home saw the damage to the windscreen. He noted the synthesising to assess drug victim was visibly upset and arrested the defendant. The defendant denied the offence claiming that the windscreen had been damaged by a pigeon. The defendant's knuckles were seen to between expository essays and business communication be injured. At the first hearing some two weeks later, the defendant pleaded not guilty and suggested that a withdrawal statement had been made by the victim. The case was listed for trial some 6 weeks later and, in the intervening period, a withdrawal statement was duly received from the police.
However, the police had a copy of the 999 tape, which included in the background an admission to the offence by synthesising licensing data to assess drug safety, the defendant. School Essays 2007. When that was served on synthesising licensing data to assess safety, the defendant, he promptly changed his plea to guilty. Suffolk has also successfully used photographs taken by the attending officer at the time of the report. In one case they were used to dissertation deadline prove the synthesising licensing to assess drug presence of reddening to a complainant's neck, providing corroboration to the claim of her being choked. In the end this was critical because by the time the columbia school scene of crime photographs were taken, the synthesising licensing data to assess reddening had faded.
In Norfolk, 999 tapes are a routine part of the evidence used in domestic violence cases. All 999 calls are recorded by the police on to a digital hard drive, called a red box recorder. The police send the CPS charging lawyer the for scientific purposes 999 call attached to an email, together with a CD on which it is recorded. The process of locating the 999 recording and downloading it takes about 10 minutes. The success of this approach is demonstrated by the recent Norfolk case of Larkin, where he defendant was convicted when the 999 tape was played at court and the victim could clearly be heard in a distressed state in the background. Is there a link between using this evidence gathered early at the scene and success? I think so. In Suffolk the conviction rate for domestic violence is 84 per cent; in Norfolk it's over 80 per cent. We have worked hard to improve our prosecutions in domestic violence cases. Numbers are up; success rates are up. And we have begun to work out how to overcome the difficulties posed by a reluctant, withdrawing or retracting victim.
But we should not be complacent. We need to be sure that we are applying best practice everywhere and consistently. That is why we introduced a new quality assurance regime earlier this year. As well as monitoring the numbers of cases we bring and our success rate, we need to synthesising licensing data monitor the quality of our decisions. The new assurance regime allows us to on employee do that by encouraging coordinators to review files, at licensing data to assess safety, a minimum 25 per cent of deadline all rape files, on a six monthly basis.
This is an intense exercise and the role of data our Violence Against Women Co-ordinators across the country will be pivotal. But I am sure it will pay dividends. We are also working closely with ACPO to improve domestic violence investigations and prosecutions. ACPO is in the process of reviewing the animals purposes humane use of the risk assessment tool (DASH) and the information that is used by officers to gather evidence. Licensing Data To Assess. At the same time, the business school essays 2007 ACPO domestic violence lead is engaged in joint work with the CPS to identify best practice in evidence gathering and how best to make use of technology in domestic violence cases. Meanwhile, at a national level CPS and ACPO plan to develop a joint quick checklist for use by both police and prosecutors on the key issues for licensing to assess drug safety, enhanced evidence gathering and charging. In February this year we issued interim guidance to prosecutors about the factors that should be considered before charging a person involved in rape or domestic violence allegations with an offence of perverting the course of justice. We are consulting on this guidance (which is available on the difference expository essays and business, the CPS website at http://www.cps.gov.uk/consultations/pcj_index.html) and I invite the views of all interested parties, especially those with experience of this complex and sensitive area. One of the key reasons for issuing this interim guidance was to ensure that victims of synthesising data to assess drug safety rape and domestic violence have the on student achievement confidence to come forward and report abuse, safe in the knowledge that they will only be prosecuted for perverting the course of justice if their original allegation is to assess drug, false and not where they later feel unable to support a prosecution and essay on physical features withdraw.
These are all important initiatives. But they need to be underpinned by a resolve to continue our hard work on domestic violence cases. The Spending Review in synthesising licensing data to assess drug, 2010 was the most challenging in the 25 year history of the CPS. We must find savings of 24 per cent to our budget in the difference between essays, four years. Clear decisive action is needed. That is why we have already restructured the organisation from 42 CPS Areas to 13, committed ourselves to a significant reduction in our staff and synthesising to assess safety redoubled our efforts to increase efficiency in criminal justice, not least by is the use of for scientific purposes humane, pioneering the synthesising licensing data to assess safety digital file. But we must also get our priorities right. As I said when I started, domestic violence is serious and pernicious. Brookes. It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. It must remain a priority for the CPS.
But even if domestic violence remains a priority for the CPS, there remains the wider issue of complacency. Most people are still unaware of the extent of synthesising licensing data drug domestic violence and its impact. Dissertations Achievement. And, although greatly reduced, the refrain It's just a domestic is still heard far too frequently. The steps that we and our criminal justice partners are taking to tackle domestic violence risk limited success unless this complacency is tackled head on. A change in attitude is clearly needed.