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Conflicts in marriage essay

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Shari'a and Violence in conflicts American Mosques. by Mordechai Kedar and David Yerushalmi. Middle East Quarterly. How great is the danger of extremist violence in the name of Islam in the United States? Recent congressional hearings into this question by Rep.

Peter King (Republican of and prejudice reputation New York), chairman of the Committee on Homeland Security, have generated a firestorm of controversy among his colleagues, the press, and the general public. Though similar hearings have taken place at in marriage essay, least fourteen times since 2001,[1] King was labeled a latter-day Joe McCarthy and critic essays the hearings called an in marriage assault on civil liberties and writing a contemporary witch-hunt. Yet the larger dilemmas outlined by both the congressman and some of his witnesses remain: To what extent are American Muslims, native-born as well as naturalized, being radicalized by Islamists? And what steps can those who are sworn to in marriage, the protection of American citizenry take that will uncover and disrupt the plots of those willing to take up arms against others for the sake of jihad? Root Causes and Enabling Mechanisms. A comprehensive study of the relationship between Shari'a adherence and incitement to violence in American mosques found that mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to contain violence-positive materials than those where men and writing essay 6th grade women were not segregated. One study by Quintan Wiktorowicz, assistant professor of in marriage international studies at Rhodes College and critic essays now on conflicts in marriage, the staff of the writing college National Security Council,[3] noted that modern jihadists legitimize their violent activities by relying on conflicts essay, the same textual works as their nonviolent Salafist counterparts. However, the approach taken to these texts by the violent jihadist may be distinguished from writing argumentative 6th grade, that of the nonviolent Salafist insofar as the jihadist uses the principles advanced by conflicts in marriage essay, both classical and modern Islamic scholars and ideologues and critic essays adapts them to modern situations in in marriage a way that provides a broader sanction for the permissible use of violence.[4]

Further, in 2007, Paul Gill concluded that terrorist organizations seek societal support by creating a culture of martyrdom and that one theme common to suicide bombers was the support they received from a community that esteemed the concept of martyrdom. Writing Argumentative 6th Grade! Thus, a complex dynamic is at work between a terrorist organization, society, and individuals with the interplay between these three dimensions enabling radicalization and terrorist attacks.[5] Another item that may help to conflicts, understand the growth of modern jihadism appears in Marc Sageman's 2004 study, which found that 97 percent of jihadists studied had become increasingly devoted to forms of Salafist Islam highly adherent to essay, Shari'a (Islamic law) while on their path to radicalization, despite many coming from in marriage, less rigorous devotional levels during their youths. This increase in devotion to Salafist Islam was measured by outwardly observable behaviors such as wearing traditional Arabic, Pakistani, or Afghan clothing or growing a beard.[6] When viewed together, a picture emerges that may give researchers, as well as law enforcement officials, a way to monitor or potentially to critic essays, predict where violent jihad may take root. Potential recruits who are swept up in this movement may find their inspiration and encouragement in a place with ready access to classic and modern literature that is positive toward jihad and conflicts in marriage essay violence, where highly Shari'a-adherent behavior is practiced, and where a society exists that in some form promotes a culture of martyrdom or at least engages in activities that are supportive of violent jihad. The mosque can be such a place. That the mosque is a societal apparatus that might serve as a support mechanism for violent jihad may seem self-evident, but for it to be a useful means for measuring radicalization requires empirical evidence. A 2007 study by writing argumentative 6th grade, the New York city police department noted that, in the context of the mosque, high levels of Shari'a adherence, termed Salafi ideology by the authors of the report, may relate to support for violent jihad. In Marriage! Specifically, it found that highly Shari'a-adherent mosques have played a prominent role in radicalization.[7] Another study found a relationship between frequency of mosque attendance and a predilection for supporting suicide attacks but discovered no empirical evidence linking support for suicide bombings to master, some measure of religious devotion (defined and measured by frequency of prayer).[8]

However, the study suffers from conflicts, a major methodological flaw, namely, reliance on critic essays, self- reporting of prayer frequency. Muslims would be under social and psychological pressure to report greater prayer frequency because their status as good or pious believers is linked to whether they fulfill the religious obligation to pray five times a day.[9] This piety is not dependent on regular mosque attendance as Muslims are permitted to pray outside of a mosque environment whenever necessary.[10] Hence, the conflicts in marriage pressure to over-report exists for critic essays, self-reporting of prayer frequency but is not present in self-reporting of frequency of mosque attendance, which is a measure of conflicts in marriage both coalitional or group commitment and religious devotion. Thus, there is writing essay 6th grade, a need for the study and conflicts in marriage corroboration of a relationship between high levels of Shari'a adherence as a form of religious devotion and coalitional commitment, Islamic literature that shows violence in engineering a positive light, and institutional support for violent jihad. By way of filling this lacuna, the authors of this article undertook a survey specifically designed to determine empirically whether a correlation exists between observable measures of religious devotion linked to Shari'a adherence in American mosques and the presence of conflicts in marriage violence-positive materials at those mosques. The survey also sought to ascertain whether a correlation exists between the presence of violence-positive materials at reputation essay, a mosque and the promotion of jihadism by conflicts, the mosque's leadership through recommending the thesis ontology study of these materials or other manifest behaviors.

Identifying Shari'a-Adherent Behaviors. Shari'a is the conflicts Islamic system of law based primarily on two sources held by writing argumentative, Muslims to be respectively direct revelation from God and divinely inspired: the Qur'an and the Sunna (sayings, actions, and traditions of Muhammad). There are other jurisprudential sources for Shari'a derived from the legal rulings of Islamic scholars. These scholars, in conflicts turn, may be adherents of differing schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Notwithstanding those differences, the divergence at the level of pride essay actual law is, given the fullness of the corpus juris, confined to relatively few marginal issues.

Thus, there is general unity and agreement across the Sunni-Shiite divide and across the various Sunni madh'habs (jurisprudential schools) on core normative behaviors.[11] Surveyors were asked to essay, observe and record selected behaviors deemed to be Shari'a-adherent. These behaviors were selected precisely because they constitute observable and reputation measurable practices of an orthodox form of Islam as opposed to conflicts in marriage essay, internalized, non-observable articles of faith. Such visible modes of conduct are considered by traditionalists to have been either exhibited or commanded by Muhammad as recorded in the Sunna and later discussed and preserved in canonical Shari'a literature. The selected behaviors are among the most broadly accepted by legal practitioners of Islam and thesis ontology are not those practiced only by a rigid subgroup within Islam—Salafists, for example.

Among the behaviors observed at the mosques and scored as Shari'a-adherent were: (a) women wearing the hijab (head covering) or niqab (full-length shift covering the entire female form except for conflicts essay, the eyes); (b) gender segregation during mosque prayers; and (c) enforcement of straight prayer lines. Master Ontology! Behaviors that were not scored as Shari'a-adherent included: (a) women wearing just a modern hijab , a scarf-like covering that does not cover all of the hair, or no covering; (b) men and in marriage essay women praying together in thesis the same room; and conflicts essay (c) no enforcement by the imam, lay leader, or worshipers of straight prayer lines. The normative importance of a woman's hair covering is thesis, evidenced by conflicts essay, two central texts, discussed at length below, Reliance of the Traveller and thesis Fiqh as-Sunna (Law of the Sunna), both of which express agreement on the obligation of in marriage a woman to wear the hijab : There is master thesis ontology, no such dispute over conflicts in marriage, what constitutes a woman's aurah [private parts/nakedness]. And Prejudice Reputation! It is stated that her entire body is aurah and must be covered, except her hands and essay face … God does not accept the prayer of an adult woman unless she is wearing a head covering ( khimar , hijab ).[12] The nakedness of a woman (even if a young girl) consists of the pride reputation whole body except the conflicts face and hands. The nakedness of a woman is that which invalidates the prayer if exposed. … It is recommended for ontology, a woman to wear a covering over her head ( khimar ), a full length shift, and a heavy slip under it that does not cling to the body.[13] In a similar fashion, Shari'a requires that the genders be separated during prayers. While both Reliance of the Traveller and Fiqh as-Sunna express a preference that women should pray at home rather than the conflicts in marriage essay mosque,[14] they agree that if women do pray in the mosque, they should pray in lines separate from the men.[15] Additionally, authoritative Shari'a literature agrees that the men's prayer lines should be straight, that men should be close together within those lines, and essay writing that the imam should enforce prayer line alignment.[16] The mosques surveyed contained a variety of texts, ranging from contemporary printed pamphlets and in marriage essay handouts to classic texts of the Islamic canon.

From the perspective of promoting violent jihad, the literature types were ranked in the survey from severe to moderate to nonexistent. Critic Essays! The texts selected were all written to conflicts essay, serve as normative and instructive tracts and are not scriptural. Thesis Engineering! This is important because a believer is free to understand scripture literally, figuratively, or merely poetically when it does not have a normative or legal gloss provided by Islamic jurisprudence. The moderate-rated literature was authored by respected Shari'a religious and/or legal authorities; while expressing positive attitudes toward violence, it was predominantly concerned with the more mundane aspects of religious worship and ritual. The severe material, by contrast, largely consists of relatively recent texts written by conflicts, ideologues, rather than Shari'a scholars, such as Abul Ala Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb. These, as well as materials published and disseminated by the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, are primarily, if not exclusively, aimed at using Islam to and prejudice, advance a violent political agenda. Mawdudi (1903-79), for one, believed that it was legitimate to wage violent jihad against infidel colonizers in order to gain independence and spread Islam. His Jihad in Islam , found in many of the mosques surveyed, instructed followers to employ force in in marriage pursuit of a Shari'a-based order:

These [Muslim] men who propagate religion are not mere preachers or missionaries, but the functionaries of God [so that they may be witnesses for writing, the people], and it is their duty to in marriage essay, wipe out oppression, mischief, strife, immorality, high handedness, and unlawful exploitation from the writing 6th grade world by force of arms.[17] Similarly, Qutb's Milestones serves as the political and essay ideological backbone of the current global jihad movement. Qutb, for example, sanctions violence against those who stand in the way of Islam's expansion: If someone does this [prevents others from accepting Islam], then it is the duty of Islam to fight him until either he is killed or until he declares his submission.[18] These materials differ from other severe- and moderate-rated materials because they are not Islamic legal texts per se but rather are polemical works seeking to master, advance a politicized Islam through violence, if necessary. Nor are these authors recognized Shari'a scholars. The same cannot be said for conflicts in marriage essay, some classical works that are also supportive of critic essays violence in the name of Islam. Works by several respected jurists and scholars from the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence, dating from the eighth to fourteenth centuries, are all in agreement that violent jihad against non-Muslims is conflicts essay, a religious obligation.[19] Such behavior is normative, legally-sanctioned violence not confined to modern writers with a political axe to grind.

Nor does its presence in classical Muslim works make it a relic of some medieval past. While Umdat as-Salik (Reliance of the Traveler) may have been compiled in the fourteenth century, al-Azhar University, perhaps the argumentative essay preeminent center of Sunni learning in the world, stated in its 1991 certification of the English translation that the in marriage essay book conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni community.[20] While addressing a host of theological matters and critic essays detailed instructions as to conflicts essay, how Muslims should order their daily routine to essay 6th grade, demonstrate piety and commitment to Islam, this certified, authoritative text spends eleven pages expounding on the applicability of jihad as violence directed against essay, non-Muslims, stating for example: The caliph … makes war upon vowel nancy Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians … provided he has first invited them to in marriage, enter Islam in argumentative faith and conflicts essay practice, and master thesis if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of in marriage Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax.[21] The caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslim … because they are not a people with a book, nor honored as such, and critic essays are not permitted to conflicts, settle with paying the poll tax.[22] The Fiqh as-Sunna and Tafsir Ibn Kathir are examples of essay writing college works that were rated moderate for purposes of conflicts this survey. The former, which focuses primarily on the internal Muslim community, the family, and the individual believer and not on violent jihad, was especially moderate in its endorsement of violence. Vowel! Relatively speaking, the Fiqh as-Sunna expresses a more restrained view of violent jihad, in that it does not explicitly call for a holy war against the West even though it understands the Western influence on Islamic governments as a force that is destructive to Islam itself.[23] Nonetheless, such texts do express positive views toward the use of violence against the other, as expressed in the following: Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, The ties of Islam and the principles of the religion are three, and whoever leaves one of them becomes an unbeliever, and his blood becomes lawful: testifying that there is no god except God, the obligatory prayers, and the fast of conflicts essay Ramadan. … Another narration states, If anyone leaves one of master [the three principles], by God he becomes an unbeliever, and no voluntary deeds or recompense will be accepted from him, and in marriage his blood and wealth become lawful. Writing Essay! This is a clear indication that such a person is to in marriage essay, be killed.[24] Similarly in writing essay Tafsir Ibn Kathir : Perform jihad against essay, the disbelievers with the sword, and be harsh with the hypocrites with words, and pride reputation this is the jihad performed against them.[25]

The survey's findings, explored in essay depth below, were that 51 percent of civil engineering mosques had texts that either advocated the use of violence in the pursuit of conflicts in marriage essay a Shari'a-based political order or advocated violent jihad as a duty that should be of paramount importance to a Muslim; 30 percent had only texts that were moderately supportive of violence like the thesis civil engineering Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Fiqh as-Sunna ; 19 percent had no violent texts at all. A representative sample of one hundred mosques throughout the United States was surveyed. Table 1 presents the distribution of essay mosques by state. One quarter of the mosques had 10 or fewer worshipers; 50 percent had up to 28 worshipers; 75 percent had up to 70; the argumentative essay 6th grade largest mosque had an estimated 1,700 worshipers. Table 1: Number of Mosques Surveyed by State. The study found a statistically significant association between the severity of violence-positive texts on mosque premises and Shari'a-adherent behaviors. As indicated in Table 2, mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to contain violence-positive materials than those mosques where men and women were not segregated. Mosques that did not segregate genders were also less likely to possess violence-positive materials (26 percent) but nonetheless did carry both moderate (27 percent) and severe materials (47 percent). Table 2: Shari'a-adherent Mosques and Violence-positive Materials. Segregation in conflicts essay prayer.

Imam or lay leader has Sunna beard. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 1 mosque there was no prayer and surveyor could not determine the college usual practice. [iv] 4 mosques did not have a leader. [v] 3 with no beard included in this category. [vi] 3 had traditional beards with henna; and in marriage essay all were in civil engineering the severe group. They were combined with this group for conflicts, ease of reporting.

[vii] In 1 case it was not determined. As was the case with gender segregation, those mosques that displayed strict alignment of men's prayer lines were more likely than their less observant counterparts to contain materials from both the thesis moderate and severe categories. Thus, 59 percent of such mosques contained severe texts as opposed to 42 percent of mosques that did not enforce strict prayer line alignment. Conversely, only 4 percent of mosques with strict prayer line alignment possessed no violence-positive texts while 36 percent of their less observant counterparts exhibited no such literature. Whether the mosque's imam or lay leader wore a traditional beard was also predictive of whether the mosque would contain violence-positive materials on premises. Of the in marriage essay mosques led by traditionally bearded imams, 61 percent contained literature in the severe category, 33 percent contained only moderate-rated materials, and 7 percent did not contain any. Forty-six percent of the mosques in which the writing argumentative imam did not wear a traditional beard contained severe materials, 28 percent had moderate-rated texts, and 26 percent contained none on conflicts in marriage, site. Civil Engineering! Other aspects of an imam's or lay leader's appearance, such as wearing a head covering or traditional garb like a thoub (full-length, white gown with long sleeves) were not statistically significant. Table 3 reveals another statistically significant finding associated with mosque attendance. Mosques that contained written materials in the severe category were the best attended, followed by those with only moderate-rated materials, trailed in turn by those lacking such texts.

Mosques with severe materials had a mean attendance of 118 worshipers while mosques containing only moderate materials had a mean attendance of 60 worshipers; mosques that contained no violence-positive literature had a mean attendance of 15 worshipers. Table 3: Violence-positive Materials, Mosque Attendance, and Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 2 mosques only the imam was present. [iv] Data in parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the standard deviation. [v] Women were present in 65 mosques. [vi] Boys were present in 63 mosques. The adoption or rejection of Western dress by male worshipers was yet another telling indicator of the presence of violence-positive materials.

In mosques that contained no violence-positive materials, an average of 73 percent of the men wore Western garb. In those mosques in which only moderate literature was available, 35 percent of male worshipers wore Western clothing; almost the same figure (34 percent) was exhibited in mosques featuring Qutb, et al. The survey was unable to find a statistically significant indicator when it came to women wearing a modern hijab as opposed to the more conservative traditional hijab , which covers all of the hair, or the niqab , which covers the whole body other than the eyes. This category recorded the distinction between an essay adult female worshiper wearing the less conservative modern hijab and reputation essay the traditional Shari'a-adherent hijab and niqab . Perhaps more troubling than the correlation between jihadist literature and Shari'a-adherent behaviors within a mosque was the role played by imams in recommending that worshipers study material that promote violence. The more manifestly Shari'a-adherent a mosque, the more likely its imam was to recommend the study of violence-positive texts. Thus, as seen in Table 4, 96 percent of the imams in mosques that observed strict prayer line alignment recommended such reading material. Similarly, 93 percent of the in marriage essay imams who sported a traditional, full beard endorsed the study of such writings.

But while the presence of civil engineering certain Shari'a-adherent behaviors correlated almost one-to-one with the promotion of the violence-positive texts, the absence of these attributes should not be construed as a sign of true moderation. In mosques that did not practice strict prayer line alignment, a striking 72 percent of imams nonetheless recommended violence-positive materials. Similarly, 78 percent of imams who did not wear a traditional beard were proponents of these texts. Table 4: Shari'a-based Mosque Prayer, Shari'a-based Imam Characteristics, and Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. Segregation in prayer. Beard of imam or lay leader. [ii] In 4 mosques, neither an imam nor a lay leader was present. However, in 1 of these 4 cases the imam had made clear recommendations on the mosque's webpage. [iii] In 1 case it was not determined. Moreover, mosques where the imam recommended violence-positive materials for conflicts in marriage, study were marked by a higher presence of worshipers—both men and women—who took on essay writing, a Shari'a-adherent appearance and a lower percentage of worshipers of in marriage essay a more assimilative or Western appearance (see Table 5).

As such, these mosques were much better attended than those where such materials were not promoted. Imams at 82 of the 100 mosques surveyed recommended that worshipers study violence-positive materials; these mosques experienced a mean attendance of 96 worshipers and a median attendance of 6th grade 39. At the same time, at the 15 mosques surveyed where the imam did not recommend the study of such texts, the conflicts in marriage essay mean attendance was approximately 17 worshipers with a median attendance figure of 4. Table 5: Mosque Attendance, Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics, and writing Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. [ii] Data in parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the standard deviation. [iii] Women were present in 65 mosques. Data collected on percent women with niqab (rare), hijab, and modern hijab. The survey found a strong correlation between the conflicts essay presence of severe violence-promoting literature and mosques featuring written, audio, and video materials that actually promoted such acts. College! By promotion of conflicts in marriage jihad, the study included literature encouraging worshipers to master ontology, engage in terrorist activity, to provide financial support to jihadists, and to promote the conflicts in marriage establishment of a caliphate in the United States. These materials also explicitly praised acts of master thesis terror against the West; praised symbols or role models of violent jihad; promoted the use of force, terror, war, and violence to implement the Shari'a; emphasized the conflicts in marriage essay inferiority of non-Muslim life; promoted hatred and intolerance toward non-Muslims or notional Muslims; and endorsed inflammatory materials with anti-U.S. views.

As Table 6 demonstrates, of the 51 mosques that contained severe materials, 100 percent were led by imams who recommended that worshipers study texts that promote violence. Table 6: Violence-positive Materials and Promotion of Violent Jihad. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] Denominator is 17, 2 in this column had no imam or leader. For example, mosques containing violence-positive materials were substantially more likely to include materials promoting financial support of terror than mosques that did not contain such texts. A disturbing 98 percent of mosques with severe texts included materials promoting financial support of argumentative 6th grade terror. Those with only moderate-rated materials on in marriage, site were not markedly different, with 97 percent providing such materials. These results stand in stark contrast to the mosques with no violence-positive materials on their premises where only and prejudice, 5 percent provided materials urging financial support of terror. These results were comparable when using other indicators of jihad promotion. Thus, 98 percent of mosques that contained severe-rated literature included materials promoting establishing an Islamic caliphate in the United States as did 97 percent of mosques containing only in marriage essay, moderate-rated materials.

By contrast, only one out of the 19 mosques (5 percent) that had no violence-positive literature advocated this. Pride Reputation! Similarly, mosques with severe or moderate materials invited speakers known to have promoted violent jihad (76 percent and in marriage 60 percent respectively) versus one mosque out of 19 (5 percent) which did not contain violence-positive texts. Finally, three patterns of behavior indicating promotion of violent jihad did not strongly correlate to epenthesis, the presence of conflicts violence-positive literature. Despite the presence of severe texts in such mosques, only a small number actually encouraged joining a terrorist organization, openly collected monies for such organizations, or distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations. Although very few mosques engaged openly in critic essays these activities, a correlation between these activities and the presence and severity of violence-positive literature was shown to exist. The conclusions to be drawn from this survey are dismal at best, offering empirical support for previous anecdotal studies on essay, the connection between highly Shari'a-adherent mosques and pride reputation essay political violence in the name of conflicts essay Islam.

The mosques where there were greater indicators of Shari'a adherence were more likely to nancy hall, contain materials that conveyed a positive attitude toward employing violent jihad against the West and non-Muslims. Essay! The fact that spiritual sanctioners who help individuals become progressively more radicalized are connected to highly Shari'a-adherent mosques is another cause for deep concern.[26] In almost every instance, the civil engineering imams at the mosques where violence-positive materials were available recommended that worshipers study texts that promoted violence. The survey also demonstrates that there are mosques and in marriage mosque-going Muslims who are interested in a non-Shari'a-centric Islam where tolerance of the essay writing other, at least as evidenced by the absence of jihad-promoting literature, is the norm. Mosques where violence-positive literature was not present exhibited significantly fewer indicators of orthodox, Shari'a-adherent behaviors and were also significantly less likely to promote violent jihad or invite speakers supportive of violent jihad. These non-Shari'a-centric mosques may provide a foundation from which a reformed Islam and its followers can more completely integrate into liberal, Western citizenship. The results of this survey do not indicate the percentage of American Muslims that actually attend mosques with any regularity, nor does it reveal what relative percentage of American Muslims demonstrate Shari'a-adherent or non-adherent behaviors. Moreover, although this study shows that imams at Shari'a-adherent mosques recommend studying violence-positive materials and utilize their mosques for support of violent jihad, it does not capture the conflicts in marriage individual attendees' attitudes toward religiously sanctioned violence. However, it is at least reasonable to conclude that worshipers at argumentative, such mosques are more sympathetic to the message of the literature present at those mosques and to what is being preached there. A follow-up survey of individual mosque attendees would provide insight regarding the relationship, if any, between Shari'a-adherence on the individual level and in marriage the individual's attitude toward violent jihad. A recent study by writing essay, Andrew F. March examined whether Islamic doctrine would allow Muslims to cooperate socially with non-Muslims and sincerely affirm liberal citizenship as that term is understood in in marriage essay its Western, democratic sense. Thesis Civil Engineering! He argued that there were grounds for in marriage essay, an overlapping consensus but also noted that present-day Salafists cite texts holding that Muslims are either at war with non-Muslims or, at best, are in a state devoid of any obligation to essay writing, cooperate socially with them.[27] Additionally, March noted that the underpinnings of his theoretical consensus might be negated by empirical evidence showing that a large percentage of Muslims are unaware of [or reject] arguments that advocate for Western notions of liberal citizenship.[28]

Although released before March's study, an April 2007 survey conducted by WorldPublicOpinion.org presented such empirical evidence. Conflicts! The survey found that majorities in Morocco, Egypt, Pakistan, and thesis Indonesia—ostensibly moderate Muslim countries—favored a strict application of Shari'a law in every Islamic country and keeping Western values out of conflicts Islamic counties.[29] However, that survey reports the attitudes of residents in essay 6th grade non-Western countries that enforce Shari'a to essay, varying degrees. It might be expected that Muslims in the West—who are immersed in Western culture, values, and democracy—would express different attitudes than their counterparts in the Middle East, Far East, and North Africa. Unfortunately, the results of the current survey strongly suggest that Islam—as it is generally practiced in mosques across the vowel nancy hall United States—continues to manifest a resistance to the kind of in marriage tolerant religious and legal framework that would allow its followers to make a sincere affirmation of master thesis ontology liberal citizenship. This survey provides empirical support for the view that mosques across America, as institutional and social settings for mosque-going Muslims, are at least resistant to social cooperation with non-Muslims.

Indeed, the overwhelming majority of mosques surveyed promoted literature supportive of violent jihad and a significant number invited speakers known to have promoted violent jihad and other behaviors that are inconsistent with a reasonable construct of liberal citizenship. This survey suggests that, first and essay foremost, Muslim community leaders must take a more active role in writing college educating their own faith community about the conflicts in marriage dangers associated with providing a safe haven for critic essays, violent literature and in marriage its promotion—whether that safe haven is the mosque or the social club. These results also suggest that researchers and counterterrorist specialists should pay closer attention to the use and exploitation of classic Islamic legal doctrine and essay 6th grade jurisprudence for conflicts, recruiting and generating a commitment to violence against the perceived enemies of Islam. Finally, these findings should engender at least an interest among researchers to begin to study carefully Muslim attitudes toward citizenship and violence but one that differentiates between those who are Shari'a-adherent and those who are not. And, among Shari'a adherents, this future survey data must be sensitive to the distinction between traditionalism, orthodoxy, and Salafism, along with the more obvious sect distinctions, such as between Sunnis and Shiites. Non-Shari'a-adherent communal prayer occurs when men and women are not segregated during the prayer service and the genders mix. Non-Shari'a-adherent alignment of men's prayer lines occurs when there is no observable attention paid to strict alignment of the men's prayer lines. A non-Sunna style beard is either limited to a chin-beard or if the imam or lay leader wears no beard at all. Non-Shari'a adherent behavior is that the writing argumentative 6th grade imam or lay leader did not wear a religious head covering.

Non-Shari'a-adherent garb is Western-style clothing such as modern-style dress or casual pants and in marriage shirt. Wearing the 6th grade watch on the left wrist or not wearing a watch at all. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for conflicts essay, an adult male worshiper to master thesis, have no beard. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for an adult male to not wear a religious hat. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to wear Western-style clothing such as pants not rolled up above the ankles.

Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to wear the modern hijab (a scarf that does not completely cover the hair) or to not wear any hair covering. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear the hijab. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear a religious head covering. If the surveyor found the conflicts essay Riyadh as-Salaheen , works by Qutb or Mawdudi, or similar materials, then the mosque was categorized as containing severe-rated materials. If the surveyor found no violence-positive materials or if the violence-positive materials constituted less than 10% of all available materials, then the mosque was categorized as containing no materials. If the imam or lay leader recommended studying any of the materials mentioned above except the critic essays Qur'an and/or Sunna, then the imam or lay leader was recorded as having recommended the study of texts promoting the rated material. [1] According to Islamic jurisprudence, Shari'a adherence can be measured across several normative axes, such as obligatory-prohibited, recommended-discouraged, and simply permissible.

In theory, every act of a Shari'a-adherent Muslim falls within one of the normative categories—that is, there is no behavior outside of conflicts in marriage Shari'a. For purposes of this survey, the authors have chosen, except where indicated by notation, the pride and prejudice essay obligatory-prohibited and conflicts in marriage the recommended-discouraged or recommended-permissible axes, which we have demarcated Shari'a-adherent/non- Shari'a-adherent, respectively. [2] If a mosque, on the basis of materials observed by the surveyor, was recorded as having: (a) promoted violent jihad; (b) promoted joining a terrorist organization; (c) promoted financial support of essay terror; (d) collected money openly at conflicts in marriage, the mosque for a known terrorist organization; (e) promoted establishing the critic essays Caliphate in the U.S.; (f) praised terror against the West; (g) distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations; or (h) invited imams or preachers who are known to in marriage essay, have promoted violent jihad, then the materials that the surveyor relied on to record the presence of this material were subject to critic essays, a secondary review by a committee of three subject-matter experts. Essay! This secondary review was collected and vowel epenthesis nancy hall reviewed by the experts evaluating the materials independently of one another. Conflicts! A consensus view of engineering two of the three experts was required to confirm the surveyor's observation. In 63 percent of the cases, the in marriage materials were so explicit in their promotion, praise, or support for the above behaviors that the committee's decision was unanimous. In no instance was there not a consensus and agreement with the surveyor's observation. [3] The different legal schools vary on whether a beard is epenthesis hall, obligatory or preferable; they also differ on conflicts essay, whether the beard for purposes of fiqh is only the chin hairs or also the vowel epenthesis nancy hall lateral hairs of the sideburns and cheeks; and they differ on the minimum required length before trimming is permitted.

The majority view, taking into account all schools and conflicts in marriage essay the Salafist opinions, is that a full beard is Sunna (following the behavior of Muhammad) and if not obligatory, preferable. For purposes of this survey, the epenthesis full beard, trimmed or not, was considered Shari'a-adherent and essay a chin beard or no beard, was considered as non-Sunna, and in the survey's lexicon, non-adherent. [4] While wearing a watch on the right hand is not strictly speaking a Shari'a requirement, during the preparation of the and prejudice reputation methodology of this survey, the authors identified literature at conflicts essay, several mosques attended by and prejudice, Salafists advocating the wearing of a watch on the right hand for two reasons: not to wear jewelry on conflicts in marriage essay, the left hand to critic essays, follow the mode of conflicts dress of critic essays Muhammad, who, based upon certain Sunna, did not wear jewelry on his left hand; and to avoid dressing in the way of non-Muslims. The authors decided to add this observation to determine whether this behavior translated into observance by the more fundamentalist Salafists. They also observed that the 12 imams who wore the watch on the right hand were right handed. [5] All of the conflicts in marriage essay materials characterized from this point to the end of the thesis survey were dated or produced prior to September 11, 2001 but were still available or sold by the mosque in prominent fashion. Sampling: The survey analyzed data collected from a random sample of in marriage essay 100 mosques. This sample size provided sufficient statistical power to find a statistically significant association between most of the selected Shari'a-adherent behaviors and violence-positive variables. Most Shari'a adherence and violence-positive variables exhibited a strong correlation while some exhibited a weak or no correlation.

A sample size of 100 mosques also allowed the survey to extrapolate to all mosques in the United States at vowel epenthesis nancy hall, a 95 percent confidence interval with a margin of error of +/-9.6 percent. The survey was developed by using state-by-state estimates of the Muslim population extracted from the only extant such survey.[30] This was then used to create a listing of all states whose Muslim population represented at least 1 percent of the estimated total United States Muslim population. Fourteen states and the District of Columbia (15 randomly selected states) were randomly selected from the final listing to accommodate limits on conflicts, physical logistics and personnel resources for the actual survey. For each of the pride reputation fourteen states and D.C., cities with the highest estimated concentrations of Muslims were identified, and mosques within those areas were eventually selected. Essay! The survey combined the critic essays data on 1,209 mosques listed in The Mosque in America: A National Portrait[31] with the data on the 1,659 mosques obtained online from Harvard's Pluralism Project,[32] with duplicates eliminated. Mosques were excluded from the list if there were indications that they were no longer operating, with a final site list yielding a total of conflicts in marriage 1,401 potential mosques for the survey. The dates and prayer times for essay, visiting mosques were also randomly selected. If a mosque was found to be closed, abandoned, or not at the address listed, then the next mosque that appeared on the randomized list for that city was visited.

When the dominant language of the subject mosque was determined to be other than English, such as Arabic, Urdu, or Farsi, the surveyor who visited the mosque was fluent in that language. Each mosque was visited twice, once between May 18, 2007, and December 4, 2008 (Survey Period), and then again between May 10, 2009, and May 30, 2010 (Audit Period). The results of the Audit Period confirmed the findings in the Survey Period in all but nine mosques. Data Collection: A surveyor visited a subject mosque in order: (a) to observe and record 12 Shari'a-adherent behaviors of the worshipers and the imam (or lay leader); (b) to observe whether the mosque contained the selected materials rated as moderate and severe; (c) to observe whether the mosque contained materials promoting, praising, or supporting violence or violent jihad; and (d) to conflicts in marriage, observe whether the mosque contained materials indicating the mosque had invited guest speakers known to writing 6th grade, have promoted violent jihad. Essay! (See Appendix A for pride reputation essay, a more detailed presentation of the survey variables and methodology.) Thus, the survey only examined the presence of Shari'a-adherent behaviors, the presence of in marriage essay violence-positive materials in critic essays mosques, whether an imam would promote the essay study of violence-positive materials, and whether a mosque was used as a forum to promote violent jihad. Since there is no central body to which all mosques belong, it was difficult to ascertain that the sampling universe list was complete. Argumentative 6th Grade! This may have introduced bias into the sampling although the authors find no evidence of any systemic distortions. Mordechai Kedar is an assistant professor in the departments of Arabic and Middle East studies and a research associate with the Begin-Sadat (BESA) Center for Strategic Studies, both at Bar Ilan University, Israel. David Yerushalmi is general counsel for The Center for Security Policy in Washington, D.C., and director of policy studies at the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies in Potomac, Md. [1] Timeline of the essay Committee's Work on Violent Islamist Radicalization, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Washington, D.C., accessed Mar.

24, 2011. [3] Morning Edition , National Public Radio, Jan. 24, 2011. [4] Quintan Wiktorowicz, A Genealogy of Radical Islam, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism , 28 (2005), pp. 75-97. [5] See Paul Gill, A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Suicide Bombing, International Journal of Conflict and critic essays Violence , 2 (2007), pp.

142-59. [6] Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of in marriage Pennsylvania Press, 2004), p. 93. [7] Mitchell D. College! Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat (New York: New York City Police Department, 2007), pp. 2-90. [8] Jeremy Ginges, Ian Hansen, and conflicts in marriage Ara Norenzayan, Religion and Support for Suicide Attacks, Psychology Science , 2 (2009), pp. 224-30. [9] Saba Mahmood, Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of critic essays Ritual: Disciplines of Salat, American Ethnologist , Nov.

2004, pp. 827-53. [10] Daniel Winchester, Embodying the conflicts Faith: Religious Practice and the Making of Muslim Moral Habitus, Social Forces , June 2008, pp. 1753-80; Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1991), vol. 2, pp. 67-74. [11] Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller and Tools for the Worshipper , trans.

Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller, p. vii, accessed Nov. Civil! 21, 2010; Wael B. Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 72-8, 113-24. [12] Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 1, p. Conflicts In Marriage! 113.

[14] Ibid., F12.4; Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. Epenthesis! 2, pp. 50, 56. [18] Sayyid Qutb, Milestones , in Studies in Islam and the Middle East, 2005, p. 34. [19] Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations , pp.

324-34; Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of conflicts essay Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), pp. 42-137; Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam , 2nd ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publications, 2005), pp. 1-57; David Cook, Understanding Jihad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), pp. Master Ontology! 13-92; Majid Khadduri, trans., The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965), pp. 1-22; Mary Haybeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 107-33; David Yerushalmi, Selected Classical Sources on Jihad, 2009, accessed Nov. In Marriage Essay! 6, 2010. [20] Al-Azhar certification of Reliance of the Traveller , Islamic Research Academy, al-Azhar University, Cairo, Feb. 11, 1991. [23] Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 3, p. 76.

[25] Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Houston: Darussalam Publishers, 2000), vol. 4, p. 475. [26] See, for example, The New York Daily News , Nov. 11, 2009. [27] Andrew F. Essay Writing! March, Islam and Liberal Citizenship: The Search for an Overlapping Consensus (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 266. [29] Muslim Public Opinion on in marriage essay, U.S. Ontology! Policy, Attacks on Civilians, and Al Qaeda, The Program on International Policy Attitudes at the University of Maryland, WorldPublicOpinion.org, Apr. 24, 2007. [30] Barry A. Kosmin and Seymour P. Conflicts In Marriage! Lachman, One Nation under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society (New York: Harmony Books, 1993), pp. 96-7.

[31] Ihsan Bagby, Paul M. Perl, and master thesis Bryan T. Froehle, The Mosque in America: A National Portrait, Council on in marriage essay, American Islamic Relations, Washington, D.C., Apr. 26, 2001. [32] Directory of Religious Centers, Pluralism Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, accessed Oct. 30, 2010. Related Topics: Islamic law (Shari'a), Muslims in the United States | Mordechai Kedar | Summer 2011 MEQ receive the latest by email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an master ontology integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about conflicts in marriage, its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.

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Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is and prejudice essay noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Conflicts Essay! Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in critic essays het plan zelf terug komen. Conflicts Essay! Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Thesis Civil Engineering! Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie. Conflicts In Marriage! SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden.

Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of epenthesis nancy hall, deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in in marriage te schatten hoe groot de omzet is civil engineering die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over conflicts, 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. Essay Writing! Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken. In Marriage! Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is essay het geïnvesteerd?

Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld. In Marriage Essay! Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. Critic Essays! In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is onderverdeeld in conflicts in marriage vaste activa en vlottende activa. Essay! Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in conflicts je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Pride! Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces.

Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in in marriage essay je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. And Prejudice Reputation! Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. In Marriage! Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. 6th Grade! Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Conflicts In Marriage! Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen.

Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Master Ontology! Dit kan in in marriage essay vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of master thesis ontology, bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is master thesis een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Conflicts In Marriage! Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of essay writing, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen.

Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of in marriage essay, de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is critic essays geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Critic Essays! Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Essay! In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen.

Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in epenthesis hall de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Nancy! Dit geeft aan in conflicts in marriage hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.

In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Master! Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is essay om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Writing! Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is essay simpel.

Het aantal verkochte producten per vowel nancy maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. In Marriage! Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Civil! (21%, 6% of essay, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Pride And Prejudice Reputation! Dat wil in de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Conflicts Essay! Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in pride reputation de detailhandel, of conflicts in marriage, moet je weken op je geld wachten. Vowel Epenthesis Nancy! Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Conflicts! Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen.

Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Essay! Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Ga je direct in writing college je eerste maand omzet maken, of is er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie.

Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in in marriage essay te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Writing College! De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Conflicts In Marriage! De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is thesis civil als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten.

Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is in marriage aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Hall! Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten.

Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of in marriage, ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Essay Writing! Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in in marriage te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Critic Essays! Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. verse levensmiddelen), of conflicts in marriage, kun slechts één keer per 6th grade kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Conflicts! kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in critic essays of je bedrijf rendabel is. In Marriage! Door de omzet en kosten in critic essays een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. Essay! In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is critic essays de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3).

Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Essay! De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Reputation Essay! Dit bepaalt of essay, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Writing Argumentative Essay! Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. In Marriage Essay! Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Pride And Prejudice Reputation Essay! Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in in marriage essay de vaste activa van je bedrijf.

Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Pride Essay! Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Thesis Ontology! Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Conflicts! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is critic essays de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris.

Het salaris is essay een kostenpost voor de BV. 6th Grade! De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.

Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Conflicts Essay! Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in vowel nancy hall de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in conflicts essay de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering.

De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in critic essays welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. In Marriage! Zeker in een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Civil Engineering! De cashflow berekent vervolgens of essay, jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of master thesis, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is in marriage de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Critic Essays! De cashflow is positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. De cashflow is conflicts in marriage negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.

Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen.

Een afschrijving is het in thesis de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over een bepaalde periode. Conflicts In Marriage Essay! Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of thesis civil, vrachtwagens in in marriage de loop van de jaren afnemen. Essay 6th Grade! De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is conflicts essay het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Master Thesis Ontology! Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen.

E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. In Marriage Essay! Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Critic Essays! Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of in marriage essay, het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. Epenthesis Nancy! We bieden coaching, kennis in in marriage de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert.

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An Interview With A Google Search Quality Rater. Since at least 2005, Google has been using a large, worldwide focus group to help review its search results and the quality of the web pages that rank well in its algorithm. The people in this program are called Quality Raters and, as you can imagine, the in marriage, work they do is important to search marketers everywhere. Writing Essay 6th Grade? Google was actually advertising Quality Rater jobs in late 2004, but today the conflicts in marriage essay, Quality Raters don#8217;t actually work for Google; they work for critic essays, contractors such as Lionbridge, Leapforce, Butler Hill and possibly others. According to Lionbridge#8217;s Internet Assessors Program job page, it has more than 4,500 people around the world rating search results. Conflicts In Marriage? Leapforce#8217;s website doesn#8217;t indicate how many are in its program, but the job listings page includes opportunities with names like #8220;Search Engine Evaluator,#8221; #8220;Social Search Engine Evaluator#8221; and #8220;Search Quality Judge.#8221; The Quality Raters#8217; work has become more widely known over the years thanks to a couple occasions when the writing argumentative essay 6th grade, guideline document that Google provides as part of their work has been leaked online. In Marriage? (See our posts in March 2008 and thesis October 2011.) Webmasters have also noticed unique quality rater referral strings, indicating when one of the evaluators had visited a website. After Jennifer Ledbetter posted about the program last fall, one current Quality Rater contacted Search Engine Land wanting to essay explain and clarify some of what#8217;s been written and said about the program. Since then, with a couple breaks for holidays, I#8217;ve traded numerous emails with this person … who, in addition to working for Lionbridge as a Quality Rater, also happens to work for epenthesis nancy hall, a US-based search marketing agency. To help ensure that this person, whom I#8217;ve never met, is actually a Quality Rater, I asked for some screenshots from inside the website where the rating work is done. A couple of those are inserted within the interview, and here#8217;s an image of the rating tasks home page showing an empty task queue. Below, we talk about the hiring process, what Quality Raters look for in marriage essay, when they examine websites, details of the different evaluation tasks they do and much more.

QA With A Google Search Quality Rater. SEL: Tell me how, when and why you got started with the writing 6th grade, Quality Rater program. Quality Rater: I first started with Lionbridge in May of 2011. I was looking for work because my then current employer had told me I was taking a pay cut, so I needed a way to add income. I began searching all the normal places for job listings and conflicts essay came across one on Craigslist for a Quality Rater. It sounded cool, so I sent them my resume and reputation essay they got back to me the conflicts in marriage essay, next day saying they were excited to essay writing college have me and if I could just pass a few simple tests I would be hired. That was the easy part.

Did the in marriage, job listing specifically mention Google? The listing didn#8217;t mention anything about nancy, Google but as soon as they contacted me, they said I would be doing work related to Google. So, you knew it was Google-related. At what point did you know that you#8217;d be rating Google#8217;s search results? I knew before I got hired. One thing I think the SEO community is missing is conflicts essay, that this program has nothing to civil engineering do with SEO or rankings. What this program does is conflicts, help Google refine their algorithm. For example, the Side-by-Side tasks show the results as they are next to the results with the new algorithm change in critic essays, them.

Google doesn#8217;t hire these raters to rate the web; they hire them to rate how they are doing in matching users queries with the best source of information. Let#8217;s talk about the hiring process. There#8217;s some kind of in marriage essay, test. Engineering? Was it difficult? I had six days to complete both parts of the test, with the second part opening after I passed the first test.

The tests turned out to be a 24-question, essay-response theoretical test that asked questions based on a PDF they had sent me. The questions were designed to conflicts essay test my ability to take the rules and vowel epenthesis nancy hall apply them to situations that weren#8217;t covered in in marriage, the PDF. One that I vaguely remember was about thesis civil, spam and essay what to do if the site didn#8217;t show any signs of spam, but it gave off a spammy feeling. It was the hardest test I have ever taken (for a reference point, I#8217;m a Literature major who has taken graduate-level courses). Only after having passed that test did I get to take the practical exam, which had more than 140 questions.

This test had actual results that I had to rate. In order to be hired, I needed to score a 90% or higher in each of the and prejudice, four categories (which were Vital , Useful , Relevant and Off-Topic or Useless ). Ideally, these represented the actual tasks that I would receive as a rater. What were the in marriage, questions like? To give you example of questions asked: Query [crispy cream], English (US) It would then be up to me to visit the page #8212; something that I want to master ontology stress, because blogs out in marriage essay there have been saying that a rater can rate the page without visiting it #8212; decide if it fits the query and then assign a rating. It really is up to the rater, but the critic essays, correct answer here is conflicts in marriage, Useful because of the spelling. If the user had typed #8220;Krispy Kreme,#8221; than this result would be off-topic, but because it is #8220;crispy cream,#8221; and critic essays the guitars on this page are called Crispy Cream, this could be the page the user is wanting. Essay? There were 143 just like that.

It was good times. Do you have any direct contact with anyone at epenthesis nancy Google, or do you only communicate with Lionbridge? I have no contact with Google; it#8217;s only in marriage essay Lionbridge. After you get hired, is essay writing, there some kind of training? After I got hired there was a weekly, two-hour webinar along with training modules to complete.

It was very intense training. During the first four weeks, I was required to essay comment on every rating I gave. These comments were then reviewed and commented on, giving me feedback on my ratings. At what point do you get the raters#8217; handbook? I got this the critic essays, moment I got hired. It basically is conflicts in marriage, just a list of tasks we perform along with examples of how to master ontology rate them. How does Lionbridge (or Google) describe the handbook?

They refer to it as the guidelines, not a handbook. Conflicts? While we are on the subject of guidelines, one thing that really impressed me was how they have more than one rater looking at a site. I believe (I#8217;m not sure, I#8217;m going off the comments left by other raters) that there are about six raters looking at each task. If I rate something as useful but another rater says it#8217;s off-topic, we must come to college an agreement (through comments and debate) before the rating is submitted. How much do you make and how often do you get paid? I get paid $14.50/hour and I am paid once a month. I#8217;m only able to work a max of 20 hours a week and a total max of 80 hours a month. Conflicts Essay? In one of the recent articles about the Quality Raters, it says you can only work for a year and then you have to wait three months before you can re-apply.

Is that true? I know they say you can only be a rater for a year, but everyone I#8217;ve talked to says that, as long as they get their hours in and keep up the quality they are allowed to rate. Is the schedule completely up to you, or do they give you assigned hours? I schedule my own hours; as long as I get at least 10 but no more than 20, I stay on pretty good terms with them. Engineering? They are very strict, but allow you to make up hours that you missed.

So, if I only did four hours the first week, I could make up the essay, hours by doing 16 hours the next week. Still only allowed 20 hours a week max, so if I miss more hours than I can make up, I#8217;m out of luck. They also tend to be really strict about their productivity goals. Writing? There is a certain number of tasks that I must complete every minute, depending on conflicts essay, the task type. Essay College? If I fall short of those goals, I am put on conflicts, probation, during which I can not work. If my quality isn#8217;t up to par, they fire me. It#8217;s a very controlled work environment. You mentioned there about getting fired #8220;if my quality isn#8217;t up to par.#8221; How do you know if you#8217;re doing a good job?

It seems to writing argumentative essay 6th grade me that in a lot of conflicts, cases, rating search results is pretty subjective. Results are subjective, but they have a quality center that shows your progress over time. They track how many returned results you have, how long it takes you to take care of a troubled rating, etc. While the pride reputation essay, rating is up to me, it has to conflicts essay be similar to what other raters have said. Critic Essays? So, they track quality based on staying within the time period for rating tasks and the number of tasks you have returned to you. They return tasks to in marriage you #8212; what does that mean? It means that there has been a disagreement on essay, the rating and conflicts essay you have to vowel epenthesis nancy hall go back in and come to an agreement with the other raters. So, the conflicts, rating of search results is a group project. Vowel Epenthesis Nancy Hall? Is it difficult to come to agreement?

Sometimes it#8217;s harder to agree with raters, especially if they haven#8217;t read the guideline like they should or if they are just starting out. However, after enough exchanges, they have a moderator come in and choose which rating matches it best. This moderator looks at our comments and makes a decision off of that. How often does that happen in your experience? Not very often.

Most of the time if you give your reasoning for why you rated something one way, the other raters will agree with you. Most of the time, these types of disagreements occur when something is either slightly relevant or off-topic. Once in a while, someone will think that a page is spam that isn#8217;t, or the other way around. I#8217;ve only had a moderator step in once. What do you know about the moderators? Are they Lionbridge employees? Yes, they work for Lionbridge. From what I know of them, they used to conflicts essay be raters and then got promoted. Do you only look at organic results, or are you also grading ads/PPC landing pages? We look at any type of page on the web.

Most of them are organic results, but some of the tasks are geared towards more ad-related topics. Do you remember an example of an ad-related task? Not really. Critic Essays? Most of what they were was placement on the page, order in conflicts in marriage, which they are presented and which one would I click, etc. Do you look at Google Places results and other Universal results, like News or Videos? Yes, we do. Master Thesis Ontology? I can think of many tasks where it shows the map of what a user was looking at before they typed in a query, and we are then to conflicts rate the results of argumentative essay, that query based on the map they were looking at. We also rated news based on conflicts in marriage, how current it was, how relevant it was to argumentative 6th grade the query, and if it came from essay a trustworthy source. As for videos, we had to watch the video to 6th grade determine if it was a match for the query and conflicts rate it Useful , Relevant , Slightly Relevant , or Off-topic . That part about Maps is really interesting.

So, in that task, they were putting you in argumentative, the middle of some process #8212; you#8217;re not just doing tasks that involve standalone searches, but sometimes taking into account what has happened before? Does that also happen with other searches, too? Almost all of the conflicts essay, tasks given have to do with user experience. Nancy Hall? Even with just the basic searches, we are given the user#8217;s language and location before we can rate a page. It#8217;s not about if a page fits a query, it#8217;s about conflicts essay, if a user would find the critic essays, page useful. The Maps queries (called local queries) are the only ones that give what the conflicts in marriage essay, user was looking at before searching, but we are supposed to keep in mind what a user is expecting to see from that query with every task type. For example, if someone was in essay, Seattle and typed in conflicts essay, the query #8220;weather,#8221; they would find a page showing the weather in Florida slightly relevant; however, someone in Tampa would find it useful. Aside from the critic essays, collective rating that you described above, do you ever have other communication with other raters? Are there official or unofficial places where you can chat back and forth?

There are lots of places #8212; forums and such on the Lionbridge site #8212; where raters can talk to each other, but I never interact with them. I was always stressed getting my hours in for conflicts essay, the week, so I didn#8217;t have time to mingle. Can you share a specific example of and prejudice, one of in marriage, your recent tasks? I can#8217;t think of the exact URLs I rated, but the keyword was #8220;Nike Women#8217;s Running Shoes.#8221; It gave me a list of 20 URLs to pride and prejudice essay rate (10 on each side) [ Ed. Conflicts In Marriage? note: he#8217;s referring to the #8220;Side-by-Side#8221; tasks mentioned earlier. ] and I visited each one in order to determine whether they were vital, useful, relevant, slightly relevant, or useless. With a recognized brand name like that, it wasn#8217;t hard to determine quality. For example, I think the critic essays, Nike site was one of the conflicts in marriage, options, so that would get a #8220;vital#8221; rating. I remember a couple of critic essays, sites sold the shoes, so I gave them a #8220;useful#8221; rating and conflicts essay the Wikipedia entry on Nike was giving a rating of #8220;slightly relevant#8221; because I believe not many people searching for and prejudice essay, Nike Women#8217;s Running Shoes want a history of the company.

Do you click through and conflicts in marriage essay review all ten results that show up for pride, a given task? I always click all the links simply because I#8217;m not good enough to in marriage tell what the civil engineering, site is about by just reading its description. Conflicts In Marriage Essay? No one is good enough, that#8217;s why they give us the civil, links. Essay? When you click through from a Google search result page, what are you looking for on the web page that you visit? When looking at thesis ontology a site, I always check for conflicts in marriage, spam signals first #8212; keyword stuffing, hidden text, sneaky redirects, and civil engineering the like. Once I know it#8217;s a good site, I start to look at the page as a person who would type the query in Google and whether or not the content on the page would help me fulfill my needs. Conflicts Essay? There are some tasks that ask about pride and prejudice essay, design and layout and the like, but for in marriage, the normal URL rating or Side-by-Side tasks, I really just look at content and epenthesis nancy hall figure out if it would be a worthwhile page for a user to conflicts essay see. Do you ever look at the source code or anything like that? Are Raters asked or trained to look at source code of the web pages being rated? There is writing, a quick primer on looking at the source code in conflicts, the guidelines, nothing in depth. Basically we look for thesis civil engineering, hidden keywords and other spammy tactics discussed in conflicts in marriage, the guidelines.

You mentioned URL rating tasks and epenthesis hall Side-by-Side tasks, but also some that involve design and layout. What are those tasks like? Design tasks ask if the page has a good ratio of main content, supplemental content, and ads. It also asks about the overall design, is it easy to read, clear communication of information, and the like. It#8217;s not about whether the page is beautiful or amazing, but whether or not the conflicts, normal user could find what they need on the page without getting lost. Do they give you a single web page and ask you to rate its design, or are you still going through a page of pride reputation, search results and then rating design? They are specific tasks, not part of rating a URL. Are spelling and grammar part of the design-based tasks? Spelling and grammar are something we look at in all tasks (at least I do) but there#8217;s not a ding for it.

When looking at design and layout, do your criteria change based on the type of site you#8217;re looking at? For example, a web page on a big brand site might be expected to have a more professional design than some small business sites. Like I said before, it#8217;s more about the conflicts essay, layout than the pride and prejudice essay, actual design. A company with a simple design would be rated just as well as a big company with a professional design as long as the information is clear and in marriage presented in a way that is pride essay, easy to understand. Essay? To give you an example, a page where you can tell what the main content is thesis civil engineering, with ads taking second page in the design would get a high rating. A page where the ads are confused with the main content, where you can#8217;t tell the in marriage, difference between content and ads would get a low rating. How many different kinds of tasks are there?

The guidelines I#8217;ve seen begin by saying #8220;you will work on many different types of rating projects.#8221; There are a lot of different tasks but they are all grouped under four main groups: URL, Side-by-Side, Experimental, and Result Review. The big one there is the Experimental tasks which have a ton of different types of thesis, tasks in them. I#8217;ve included a picture that lists all the task types and how long they are supposed to take, as well. Display Block, if I remember right, is a block of images that we rate as a whole rather than one at a time. TTR stands for Time to conflicts essay Rate, which is the baseline task they use to determine how long it should take to get a task done. It has all the different tasks in it, but instead of looking for accuracy it just cares about time. Do they try to give you tasks related to topics and things you know about, or do you review pages about things you#8217;re not very familiar with?

If someone types in #8220;Best Dog Food for Puppies,#8221; it#8217;s not very hard to vowel epenthesis hall know what they are wanting and most queries have a fairly obvious meaning. However, once in a while I#8217;ll get one that I can#8217;t figure out and that#8217;s when I do research to figure out what they want. Conflicts In Marriage? For example, if someone queried #8220;Release Liner,#8221; I would need to do some research to figure out that it#8217;s something used in cutting vinyl for vowel nancy, signs and the like. At that point, I could determine whether a site is worthwhile or not. Granted, it#8217;s not a perfect system but it works most of the time. Essay? Are there specific industries/niches that show up more than others in your rating tasks? Not that I have noticed. How does your work affect Google#8217;s search results #8212; do they tell you anything about that? They don#8217;t talk about pride reputation essay, that; however, I know that what it really does is conflicts in marriage essay, perfect the algorithm instead of changing actual live search results. Essay 6th Grade? I gathered this from the way that Side-by-Side are the most important tasks because they show the old algorithm versus a change in the algorithm that they are testing.

Are you an active Rater these days? How long do you think you#8217;ll keep doing it? I still rate on the weekends. I like doing it, so I#8217;ll keep doing as long as I can. Does Lionbridge and/or Google know that you work in in marriage essay, the search marketing industry? No. Ontology? I got this job after I got the Lionbridge job. Do you know of any other search marketers who are also Quality Raters? I don#8217;t know any personally, but I bet there aren#8217;t a lot of us. What#8217;s your opinion of conflicts in marriage essay, Google#8217;s search results, and has that opinion changed since you became a Quality Rater?

I#8217;ve always used Google as my #8220;go to#8221; search engine; however, since I became a rater, I#8217;ve started using it more because I can see the behind-the-scenes improvements they are trying to critic essays make. I like the conflicts, idea that they have an master ontology army of actual people working towards bettering their engine. I know some people might think this wrong or even that raters have a negative effect on their rankings. In Marriage? Well, I can honestly say that they don#8217;t. The whole point behind quality raters is not to master ontology rate the actual web, but rather rate how well Google is doing at providing quality results. Almost every company has some form of quality control. Do people get upset that McDonald#8217;s has someone check the quality of their food? I don#8217;t see what Google does as any different than wanting to present the best possible product they can to conflicts in marriage their users. So, to answer your question, yes, my opinion has changed for the better.

Some opinions expressed in this article may be those of pride and prejudice reputation essay, a guest author and not necessarily Search Engine Land. Staff authors are listed here. Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on Facebook, Twitter or our LinkedIn Group. In Marriage Essay? Gain new strategies and insights at the intersection of thesis, marketing, technology, and management. Our next conference will be held: The Periodic Table of Seo Success.

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Descriptive Essays For Grade 7 Essays and conflicts essay Research Papers. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . essays strive to critic essays create a deeply involved and in marriage essay vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on vowel epenthesis nancy hall, portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages.

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?Fred Cotten Descriptive Essay September 27, 2014 English 1010 - 85 A Mini Vacation to Atlanta, Georgia Traveling is one . of my family’s favorite things to do. Conflicts In Marriage? The family has visited numerous places throughout the United States, however, none are as memorable as Atlanta, Georgia. In Atlanta, there are many places to thesis ontology go and sights to see such as: Cola-cola factory, Cabbage Patch Kids Factory, Under Ground Mall, the Zoo, Atlanta Braves Stadium, Six Flags Over Georgia, Stone Mountain Park, and. 1996 Summer Olympics , Atlanta , Atlanta metropolitan area 788 Words | 3 Pages. My first Car Enc1101 March 11, 2012 Descriptive essay My first car was my first most prized possession. I’d named her, . tested her out on interstates, and essay took good care of her like she was one of my children. She had mirror tinted windows and was deep ocean blue that gleamed in essay writing college, the summer sun, she was flawless. I will never forget my first out of town drive to in marriage Tallahassee- smoothest, fastest ride ever! Had it not been for the scenery I would’ve felt like I was driving in a race. I remember.

Automobile , English-language films , Mother 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay A Horrid Memory My sweaty palms ran through-out the nancy thin strands of my hair as I tried to comfort . myself for just a single moment. Essay? I felt scared, almost terrified as the screams of my nightmare echoed in my ears and writing college made my head throb. Almost never did I have such vivid dreams, and conflicts in marriage when I did, I never remembered them the next day. Essay? Nevertheless, I don't think that I'll ever be able to make amends with my darkest memories and essay reliving situations that scarred my childhood. Laughter 865 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Descriptive essay writing An essay is a written composition of moderate length . exploring a particular issue or subject. Descriptive essays , derived from the word describe, is critic essays, a genre of conflicts in marriage essay that asks the thesis ontology student to describe something—object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc. Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay , which reveals meaning through a personal story, the.

Emotion , Essay , Meaning of in marriage life 794 Words | 3 Pages. ?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. Pride? The first issue at essay . Critic Essays? hand is to make sure you know what type of paper you are writing. Conflicts In Marriage? The descriptive essay is master thesis ontology, often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the in marriage assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is thesis civil engineering, still quite a bit of conflicts in marriage homework to be done. Here is pride, a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive Essay Hearts were racing, twelve to be exact, lungs were being constricted tighter and tighter with every second . that went by, joints were being pushed to conflicts in marriage essay their limits as their limbs stretched the farthest they could reach, and civil yet these twelve people were still able to ignore their injuries. Conflicts? All they revealed was happiness. There was no pain to pride and prejudice be seen.

No acknowledgement of misery because they all knew they only had those two minutes and thirty seconds to in marriage essay give it their all. Any sense. Pain , Split 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essay Draft Throughout our lives we meet many people. We impact others by pride, our own actions every day. Conflicts In Marriage? Sometimes . we impact them without even realizing it. And people will impact our lives and our hearts forever. You may just have a simple conversation with a stranger on a bus, and civil before you know it, both individuals have a changed perspective on something. In Marriage Essay? Or perhaps you’ve known the person your whole life and they have impacted you just as much or even more. Pride Reputation? These influential people. 2008 albums , 2008 singles , Conversation 964 Words | 3 Pages.

?Icesus Holland Brenda White English 101 16 September 2013 Descriptive Essay The beach is conflicts, one of the most beautiful . places in essay, the world. Before visiting, I had only been to the four states, which is the in marriage stringy grassy fields, the writing argumentative essay forest of trees, the smelly white and black cows and pink curly tailed pigs. See I had never seen any other states but Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. In Marriage? I love the picture in my head but it was nice to finally see something different. When my boyfriend. 1996 albums , 2005 singles , Akira Kurosawa 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay My nose is writing argumentative essay, overwhelmed with the in marriage smell of hairspray, baby powder, and a fruity perfume.

There are too many . girls in here, all struggling and fighting for a space near the mirror that covers the entire back wall. It’s dim in here, but it’s a good kind of vowel hall dim, almost calming. The only light is coming from the round vanity bulbs that line the top of the conflicts in marriage mirrors, making it so that the fluorescents don’t impair what natural light reveals. Critic Essays? I make my way to the red lockers on the right. Cosmetics , Hair iron , Hairstyle 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you . should certainly look for essay a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Thesis Ontology? Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and compulsory elements. A writer has to in marriage essay develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on the issue. What are these issues? These may be people, events, facts etc. Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose.

Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of tha problems with growing older is losing tha wonder and . Thesis Civil Engineering? fascination of in marriage tha world that children see. Thesis? With tha everyday drudgery of life, it gets harder and conflicts in marriage harder to see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. College? This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha. Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages.

?Gina Broyles English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige . Conflicts In Marriage Essay? Mackenzie Polk, a five foot girl with ten feet of attitude and sass. The girl that everyone knows and master ontology watches in awe as she struts down the hallways. She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at everything she attempts, and never has a thought of giving up until she feels it is conflicts, good enough for not only herself, but every other person around. Everything about Saige is spectacular. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages. A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . blazing sun, the smell of baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me. Writing? I follow the conflicts in marriage essay unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward. Overhead the thesis deafening whirl of in marriage metal and epenthesis nancy screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of greasy motors and hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on Christmas morning about to conflicts in marriage essay receive a favorite.

Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. Writing? The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. Conflicts Essay? When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the essay 6th grade storm approached I certainly changed my mind. Conflicts Essay? As we sat in the house it became very real how bad the thesis storm was going to be. It was scary to. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay As I walked through the cold, lonely streets of essay Aberdeen, I decided to take a shortcut home.

Making a sharp . Essay? right, I was headed down an alleyway, which was dark and sinister. Mist was slowly rising upward from the ground, which appeared yellowish from the reflection of one sole, dim, flickering light, almost at the point of burning out. Essay? The only sounds of the thesis engineering night came from my own feet dragging over many pebbles and stone on the cement. The breeze was very bitter and piercing. Cosmo Kramer , This Old Man 1151 Words | 3 Pages. Jennifer Schacht ENG-090 2/10/2011 Descriptive Essay Final We have been waiting nine long months, and we have had much . preparation to do before the arrival of our daughter.

Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of her room, my mother and I painted it and sat it up with all the accessories together. Conflicts In Marriage? I sat on epenthesis nancy hall, the floor and taped off the conflicts in marriage essay stripes to be painted, and essay college my mom painted. Conflicts Essay? It was a great team effort, and we are so happy how it turned out. With flowers and butterflies. 2007 singles , Caesarean section , English-language films 2924 Words | 6 Pages. English Description Essay In this essay I will describe something in my home; I have chosen to describe a Cheez-It box. . Many people own Cheez-It snacks in their homes. The color of the Cheez-It box is red, white, orange, yellow, and master black. The front of the box has a big label reading Cheez-It. Above the conflicts in marriage label it shows the company’s name which is Sunshine.

It has a picture of a little fat chef on the left of the company sunshine’s name. Directly underneath the master thesis ontology Cheez-It label it declares. Cheddar cheese , Cheese , Cheez-It 961 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of conflicts in marriage writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and essay writing a few differences between the conflicts in marriage essay two. I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the college descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages.

English 1301 Week 4 The Narrative Essay My First Flight The seasons are approaching in which families gather to essay celebrate . Thanksgiving and Christmas. This time of year does not carry the same feelings for me as they did when I was young. Civil Engineering? I am a military spouse and conflicts in marriage essay my husband has been away for most of essay our holidays. One peculiar Christmas I received the conflicts in marriage opportunity to master thesis ontology spend the holiday with him this was my first flight experience. The morning of my flight, I got up at essay 2 o’clock, said a prayer. Anxiety , Flight , Plane 1310 Words | 3 Pages.

College Writing 2 October 2012 Descriptive Essay A compact two-door car might not mean a lot to thesis ontology someone, but to me, working . and improving my car is my favorite thing to do. When I am not inside my house or hanging out with my friends, you’ll be sure to find me working or cleaning my car. For most people, leaving their car stock is passable for their needs, but to me it’s not. Essay? My car is modified which makes it one of a kind. My car consists of its exterior, interior, and performance level. Automobile , Color , Headlamp 2139 Words | 5 Pages. ? NIGERIA The purpose of this essay is to describe Nigeria.

Officially it is a federal constitutional republic, located in writing argumentative 6th grade, West . Africa and conflicts in marriage shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in college, the west, Chad and conflicts in marriage Cameroon in the east, and Niger in critic essays, the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Its three largest and most influential ethnic groups are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. Africa , Benin , Niger 1819 Words | 8 Pages.

? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an incident could . happen. On December 31, 2008, in conflicts essay, Benin precisely in West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and I decided to go out, as we were welcoming the thesis civil New Year. Erick and John were my best friends in High school, and we were together almost all the time. Conflicts In Marriage? Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and had a long beard. New Year’s Eve was always fun. ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

Descriptive paper Mercedez 1 How It Feels To Be in a Live Poker Tournament About five years ago I used to 6th grade date this guy, whose mother . Conflicts In Marriage Essay? loved to go to the casino. When I first heard about her going, I just couldn’t understand why she would get so excited about going there. She would come home and writing argumentative essay say how she had the best time and how she got so lucky. She claimed that her son would give her luck and other small things that she would do, to claim she received luck that night. Conflicts Essay? I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . Critic Essays? narrative essay is about storytelling for a narrative story to in marriage work it must capture and hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of vowel nancy your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and conflicts in marriage taste. Thesis? A descriptive essay lets you use words that.

Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Ivory Koehn 9/10/2010 Descriptive Essay Under The Raised Hand Prologue When I was a young girl learning about life and in marriage essay . love, I always thought that some man would sweep me off my feet and writing college it was my fate to be with him and only him. My mother was not a big fan of love and fate. She didn’t have a very good history of guys and relationships. She would always tell us love was not a reality and we should find someone with a lot of money. My mother is a strong feminist woman and I tried as hard.

2008 singles , English-language films , High school 2045 Words | 5 Pages. reality and dream forever muddled and intertwined. It was like I had not really been born yet, like I was not actually alive, rather just stuck in purgatory . of conflicts in marriage pre-life and critic essays had not yet taken the steps into the real universe yet. And then came third grade . It was Mrs. In Marriage? Alley’s class - she was a rather “persnickety” as she liked to call it lady who absolutely wouldn’t let anyone get away with anything. She was nice though, I could tell she had a warm heart and epenthesis I liked her better than my last teacher. 2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive . Conflicts In Marriage Essay? essay focuses on a person, place, memory, experience or an object.

First, the exact thing that is to civil be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for essay writing this kind of essay . That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion. Thesis Civil Engineering? FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing. Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. much of the conflicts descriptive elements in your essay . Master Ontology? * 5 Determine what you want the reader to feel about what you are writing. Conflicts Essay? . What kind of words or images can convey this feeling? * Use a lot of adjectives. They're the describing words. College? * * 6 Make sure there is enough detail in your essay to create a mental image for the reader. * Visualize the occasion or memory in your mind and describe. More than many other types of in marriage essays , descriptive essays strive to create. Emotion , Essay , Feeling 910 Words | 4 Pages.

listing with the price of the thesis ontology funeral. Conflicts? They also may have templates to help you write the obituary. Master Thesis Ontology? DEATH ANNOUNCEMENT WOLFE - . Claudia (Angie): Age: 49yrs. Late of: 17 Orchard Avenue, Kingston 20. Made her transition Tuesday May 7 , 2013. Leaving: mother: Georgiana, son: Andre, brother: Alcut, sisters: Deon, Mitzie amp; Tracie-Ann, nieces, nephews, other relatives amp; friends. Thanksgiving service will be held on Saturday June 1, 2013 at conflicts Faith Chapel United Pentecostal Church. Burial , Death customs , Funeral 856 Words | 4 Pages. Up From Slavery Descriptive Essay Janelle Green 2. ? Descriptive Essay Rubric CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Student Score Title Title is creative, sparks interest and is related to the topic. Vowel Epenthesis Nancy? . Essay? Title is related to the topic but needs to be more creative.

Title is present. No title present. 4 Introduction (Organization) The introduction is inviting, states the main topic, previews the structure of the ontology paper, and in marriage includes a well-written, clever lead that is related to the essay’s topic which attracts the reader’s attention. The introduction clearly states the. Abstraction , Essay , Sentence 665 Words | 1 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . essays strive to critic essays create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to in marriage describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for engineering you to conflicts essay identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages.

? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay about your . favorite location. You will not be focused on building characters or telling a story in this paper - Your paper will purely describe. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location. Your favorite room of your house Your favorite location. Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. seems it’ll never let up, but please… you got to keep ya head up.” (3:24-25).

Tupac also assures his listeners that things will work out in the end, “Cause I . Master Thesis? think we can make it, in fact, I’m sure. In Marriage? And if you fall, stand tall and essay writing college come back for more. (3: 7 -8). In Marriage? Tupac also connects his own life to civil the subjects such as power, race, divisions are all equally important parts of the lyrics. As a man, Tupac talks about how proud he is about being a African American, yet he touches base on the racism he faces. Bad Boy Records , Gender , Gender role 1719 Words | 4 Pages. ? Grade 7 Math Test Fractions, decimals and percents Part A: Multiple Choice - Circle the letter of the in marriage correct answer. (20 . marks) 1. Estimate which answer is less than 1. a) b) c) d) 2. Which quiz mark would be the same as 80%? a) b) c) d) 3. What is the best estimate for the percentage that is shaded in the diagram? a) 33% b) 50% c) 66% d) 110% 4. How much is of 35 ? a) 175 b) 70 c) 14 d) 7 5. A recipe. 0.999. , Elementary arithmetic , Fractions 637 Words | 6 Pages.

?My name Professor name English 115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to engineering Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of conflicts essay paper can reflect . about critic essays someone life, these pieces of paper illustrated by characters or passages can be meaningful for us, all the memories this brought to conflicts people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures. When we thought of pictures we just take those for granted. The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at once, it depends on critic essays, everyone perceptions about. 2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages. Gauteng Primary Languages Mathematics Strategy GPLMS TERMS OF REFERENCE Grades 7 Mathematics Lesson Plans January – December . 2013 Gauteng Primary Languages and Mathematics Strategy Grade 7 Lesson Plans TOR - October 2012 Page 1 of 3 1. Title The Grade 7 Mathematics Lesson Plans are to essay be developed for the structured use of the learning and teaching materials in GPLMS classrooms. The CAPS aligned Lesson Plans should link the DBE Workbooks and the Supplementary Learner Materials. . Assessment , Education , Educational years 818 Words | 4 Pages. ?English 101: Portfolio _______- __________________ Essay Cover Sheet Instructor Student Identification Prefix Number Please . Pride And Prejudice Reputation? type or print. Conflicts Essay? What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the epenthesis nancy hall assignment.) Assignment- Descriptive Essay The idea here is to find a place that has a function then decide whether or not it serves its purpose.

The main idea should center on how well the in marriage place works relative to its intended function. The description must be. Essay , Essays , Garden 731 Words | 3 Pages. Perception of the Grade 7 students towa. (anytime/ 24/ 7 ) and easy to 6th grade use program in curriculum-based teaching and learning resources. E-learning is a generic term for all . “electronically-supported learning and teaching.” E-learning tool includes electronic media such as phone bridging, audio and video tape, Video teleconferencing recognizes forms of web-based training or computer-aided instruction, commonly referred to conflicts in marriage as online courses.

Statement of the Problem This study intends to essay determine the perception of the Grade 7 Students on conflicts essay, the. Adult education , E-learning , Education 681 Words | 7 Pages. ?Lesson Plan in Literature for Grade 7 Students I. Objectives Students must be able to critic essays do the following at the end of the conflicts in marriage essay . activities with at least 75% proficiency. Define poetry. Enumerate the kinds of master thesis poetry. Interpret a poem. Explain observation regarding young love in written form. II. Subject Matter “Ambahan” Hanunuo-Mangyan Poem Reference: http://www.mangyan.org/book/export/html/34 Materials: Copy of the pre-assigned text, pictures and questionnaires.

III. Conflicts Essay? Procedure A. Drama , Lyric poetry , Meter 570 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles . that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. And Prejudice? It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste.

2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to conflicts escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. _ 10th Grade Literature and Composition (Periods 1, 3, 4, 6 7 ) Write the master following assignment on loose leaf paper and . then staple it to in marriage essay this sheet. This assignment needs to essay be completed by the end of the period. In Marriage Essay? Carefully read the ontology “Summer Wind” essay by essay, Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/opinion/18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the thesis civil engineering wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the conflicts in marriage essay essay . 6th Grade? 2. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages.

appreciate creation myths d. understand stress rules for two-syllable words which are heteronyms e. use proper stress f. Essay? perform a role play . Epenthesis Nancy Hall? about the story read II. Conflicts In Marriage? Subject Matter Topic: Explaining Our Beginnings Reference: Grade 7 English Learning Package Materials: video clip, laptop, LCD projector, speakers, cartolina, Skills: Speaking Skills and Critical thinking skills Value: Appreciating Creation Myths III. Procedure Teacher’s Activity | Student’s Activity. Creation myth , Creation myths , Earth 1906 Words | 6 Pages.