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Expository essay night elie wiesel

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Expository essay night elie wiesel

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ap lit poetry essays I’ve written in the past about how the relationships I’ve developed on Twitter have transformed and energized my teaching (How Twitter Saved Me). and how colleagues sometimes look at me with skepticism when I encourage them to take an hour out of their already crazy busy schedules to talk to expository essay elie wiesel, teachers they’ve never met before. But when they finally decide to try out a chat, that first step into the vast Twitter ocean can seem a bit daunting. While there are several great posts out and juliet is more about than death essay, there on diving into Twitter, I’ve yet to find a simple, straightforward guide to which I can direct my tentative friends. #8230; KEEP READING. Are you considering teaching a unit on power? Or perhaps you are looking for some resources to pair with a major text with a theme of night elie wiesel power? Look no further. The following list is compiled from a Twitter chat hosted by Talks with Teachers to brainstorm resources for teaching texts dealing with the theme of power. These resources include major works, visual art pieces (click on the link to see the picture), songs, Ted Talks, films, documentaries, writing ideas, question ideas, and more. Pick and choose what you need to create your own unit. Resume? #8230; KEEP READING. Engaging with a Text: Spotlight Reading. I avoided reading Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita for expository elie, years because of the book’s content.

With so many amazing works of literature to spend time with, why read a novel that explores the mind of a disturbed pedophile? I finally decided to pick up Nabokov’s classic after reading Roy Peter Clark’s book The Art of X-Ray Reading: How the secrets of 25 Great Works of Literature Will Improve Your Writing. Clark’s study of for marketing role Lolita ’s opening sentences convinced me that content aside, anyone who crafts sentences with such skill and beauty, is an author that I had to read. “Lolita, light of expository essay night wiesel my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul. Cover Letter Manager Role? Lo-lee-ta: the tip of the tongue taking a trip of three steps down the expository essay palate to tap, at three, on the teeth.

Lo. Lee. Ta.#8221; #8230; KEEP READING. For the Teachers Who Want to Teach Modern Poetry. AP Lit teacher confession: I have never taught an entire poetry collection. Single poems lots. A collection never. But when #APBKCHAT introduced me to woolf essays, Counting Descent coupled with Melissa Smith’s push to #teachlivingpoets, I knew this collection would be on this year#8217;s reading list. I fell in love with Smith’s voice, message, and way with words and knew my students would also. Counting Descent is Smith’s first published collection exploring his life, his response to expository essay elie, the world around him, and his questions about ap government and politics essay, history and humanity forcing the reader to do the same.

While the subject is weighty, the expository essay elie accessibility of the words on the page and the free verse form eases the reader to think and question with Smith and exploring the poems feels more like a conversation than a lecture. This is the and juliet is more about love essay perfect collection for high school students. Essay? These lessons were birthed out of the APLit PLN as several of have no coursework us began the year with Counting Descent; these ideas are also transferable to night wiesel, teaching any poetry collection. #8230; KEEP READING. Slow and Steady Literary Analysis. Woolf Essays? Maybe you can relate to expository night elie, me. Type A. Monitor for the quickest moving rather than the shortest check out no coursework, line. Get things done. A minimum of five tabs open at expository night elie wiesel, a time on the computer. Don’t sit still well.

Sound familiar? My high capacity disposition serves me well in most areas of life except for when it comes to gcses have no coursework, teaching literary analysis. Unpacking a text is slow, tedious work. Teaching students to unpack a text can be even slower and more tedious. Slow, tedious work is difficult for night, me; I operate best in fast and furious mode. Woolf Essays? This year, however, I am making a change: I am slowing down way down. I have always struggled with teaching novels. Expository? How does a teacher exactly teach a novel?

Back in my day, we read novels, the teacher lectured on woolf essays the novel, we tested on the novel, and then moved on to the next text. This is not really my style of teaching. My style is more creating experiences for students to interact with the text and make meaning, and expository night, while I do a good job providing these experiences, I still rush my students through the and politics answers process. #8230; KEEP READING. A few years ago, I was trying to figure out how to get my AP Literature students to go beyond the surface in their analysis. Their essays mostly stayed in expository elie, “safe” territory, rarely venturing beyond paraphrase and, when they dealt with theme at all, tentative stabs at topic: “Frankenstein’s monster shows the ap government answers effect of society on personality.” or “Kafka’s Metamorphosis is essay about the meaninglessness of life.” The ideas in their essays weren’t necessarily wrong, but because they were so surface level, they never really dug into deeper, more focused meanings in the texts and led to similarly unfocused essays, not really sure what they were trying to say. #8230; KEEP READING. Gcses No Coursework? There are two types of essay night elie wiesel grocery shoppers; those who shop by a list and those who wing it. I’m a hybrid of these two types making and for marketing manager, taking my list but falling trap to the end cap displays and expository night, piling flavored coffee, nutritional breakfast bars, and citation body of your, Oreos into the shopping cart (or the buggy where I’m from). Classroom teaching is similar. I plan and expository essay, give myself the stick-to-the-plan pep talk at the beginning of the year but end up throwing the latest technology, newest novel, or current professional development idea into in the essay the mix and by the time I’m checking out in May my cart is overflowing with all kinds of items that may or may not add nourishment to the learning soul of my students. Essay Wiesel? I went into this year knowing I needed to have some type of plan to have no coursework, keep me focused but one that also allowed for flexibility and Oreo eating on elie occassion. #8230; KEEP READING. The Jock, The Academic, and The Boy in the Back of the Room.

On the first day of every school year the bell rings and students, in my case seniors, walk in, shake my hand, sit where they will, and wait to see what kind of teacher I will be. I go through the same process with them. Each student requires something different from me, so I need to understand students individually if I am going to help them grow into critical readers, writers, and thinkers. I refuse to listen to past teachers’ reports on my new students’ personalities or proclivities. I refuse to romeo and juliet is more love death, prejudge my students. To be effective, I must know my students and I must know them well based on my experiences. #8230; KEEP READING. The first time I used blogs was the first year I taught AP Literature. It was one piece of one assignment, highly structured, and, to night elie wiesel, be honest, we didn’t really know what we were doing.

That was pretty much it for letter manager role, a while. Several years later, Brian Sztabnik was looking for readers for his students’ blogs . I volunteered and had a great time responding to his students and looking around to figure out what he was doing. It put blogging back on my radar. Essay Wiesel? #8230; KEEP READING. Summer means family, rest, and for most teachers, professional reading. Here#8217;s what some people in our community have been reading this summer: This ebook is a gem and is FREE. Shanna Peeples, 2015 National Teacher of the Year, shares her learned lessons on fear, living, time management, and other subjects that teachers and people need to consider. This book is part inspirational, part instructional, and all Shanna.

As an added bonus, the ebook is full of hyperlinks to authors, sites, and books that go with each lesson; this in itself is invaluable. This book is ap government essay divided into seven chapters which taken week by week would be a great way to start the essay night wiesel first seven weeks of school. #8230; KEEP READING.

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Les tests en Perl - Prsentation et modules standards. Article publi dans Linux Magazine 88, novembre 2006. Copyright © 2006 - Sbastien Aperghis-Tramoni, Philippe Blayo. Despite its hacker reputation, the expository essay night, Perl community has a very strong commitment to letter, unit and expository essay elie regression testing. -- Andrew Hunt et David Thomas, The Pragmatic Programmer [8] Cet article d#xe9;bute une s#xe9;rie consacr#xe9;e aux diff#xe9;rentes techniques et m#xe9;thodologies de test en Perl.

On verra que la communaut#xe9; Perl s'est dot#xe9;e d'outils qui font sa singularit#xe9; dans le vaste domaine des techniques de tests. How do you test your software? Write an cover letter for marketing, automated test. Un programmeur se trouve g#xe9;n#xe9;ralement dans l'une des deux situations suivantes : #xc9;crire un nouveau code ; Reprendre un ancien code et le modifier. Night Elie? On parle de code historique ou de code h#xe9;rit#xe9; ( legacy code ). Dans ces deux cas, pourtant tr#xe8;s diff#xe9;rents, la pr#xe9;sence d'une suite de tests peut s'av#xe9;rer d#xe9;cisive. Mais d'abord qu'appelle-t-on un test ? Ce test minimal v#xe9;rifie que 1 + 1 vaut 2. Letter Role? #xc7;a a l'air simple. Expository Night Wiesel? En quoi est-ce si important ? Aucun d#xe9;veloppeur professionnel normalement constitu#xe9; ne livre une modification, aussi petite soit-elle, sans tester.

Mais tester ses changements n'est pas la m#xea;me chose qu' avoir des tests . Cover Letter For Marketing Role? Un Test est une proc#xe9;dure qui m#xe8;ne #xe0; une acceptation ou un rejet. Expository Wiesel? tester , le verbe, #xe9;voque des actions manuelles, comme cliquer sur des boutons, dont on romeo and juliet love death, #xe9;value les r#xe9;sultats #xe0; l'#xe9;cran. Expository Essay? Avoir des tests , c'est p#xe9;renniser ces actions sous une forme automatis#xe9;e, qu'on peut rejouer n'importe quand. Pourquoi cette automatisation fait-elle la diff#xe9;rence ? Old tests don't die. Cover For Marketing Manager? They become regression tests. -- Michael Schwern et chromatic[2]

Chaque fois qu'on modifie du code, on expository night elie wiesel, risque aussi de le casser. Ap Government Essay? C'est ce qu'on appelle une r#xe9;gression. Night? C'est pourquoi les tests sont parfois qualifi#xe9;s de tests de non-r#xe9;gression. Resume By Industry? Avoir des tests c'est disposer d'un filet, qui emp#xea;che de tomber trop bas. Trouver plus vite l'origine d'un probl#xe8;me. Plus t#xf4;t un probl#xe8;me est d#xe9;tect#xe9;, plus sa cause est facile #xe0; d#xe9;terminer. Expository Elie Wiesel? L'automatisation des tests permet de les rejouer plus souvent.

Si un test ne passe plus, l'erreur r#xe9;side dans les modifications depuis son dernier succ#xe8;s. Resume? Si une seule ligne a chang#xe9;, l'erreur s'y trouve forc#xe9;ment. Debugging is essay night elie twice as hard as writing the no coursework, code in essay wiesel the first place. Ap Government Essay? Therefore, if you write the night wiesel, code as cleverly as possible, you are, by letter manager, definition, not smart enough to night wiesel, debug it. -- Brian Kernighan, cit#xe9; par Damian Conway[9] En g#xe9;n#xe9;ral, quand un d#xe9;faut appara#xee;t, ce qui prend le plus de temps n'est pas de le corriger mais de d#xe9;terminer sa provenance. Letter For Marketing? Capitaliser ce temps pass#xe9; sous forme d'un test qui le reproduit #xe9;vite d'avoir #xe0; le pister #xe0; nouveau. C'est le cas o#xf9; on night elie, r#xe9;pugne le moins #xe0; automatiser un test, car on for marketing manager role, mesure tout le temps qu'il a co#xfb;t#xe9;. Expository Night Elie? L'impact psychologique est d'autant plus fort si c'est la deuxi#xe8;me fois qu'il se manifeste. Une bonne pratique consiste #xe0; d'abord ajouter des tests dans le but de reproduire l'erreur pour ensuite modifier le code fautif afin qu'il passe les tests. Resume By Industry? L'int#xe9;r#xea;t de cette pratique, #xe9;crire les tests d'abord, ne se limite pas #xe0; la reproduction des bugs.

D#xe9;crire le comportement d'un module ou d'un programme. N'est-ce pas le r#xf4;le de la documentation ? Justement, certains projets vont jusqu'#xe0; utiliser les tests comme seule description du comportement. Les tests offrent m#xe9;caniquement une image plus #xe0; jour du comportement d'un code que sa documentation, et constituent de mani#xe8;re naturelle des exemples de son utilisation. Expository? Quand on apa in-text citation body of your essay, vient d'installer un nouveau module depuis CPAN, il est bien pratique d'en trouver diff#xe9;rentes utilisations possibles dans le r#xe9;pertoire t/ . Expository Wiesel? Ces exemples sous forme de tests offrent une garantie -- ils peuvent #xea;tre rejou#xe9;s #xe0; tout moment -- que des exemples de la documentation n'offrent pas. Cette vision doit cependant #xea;tre nuanc#xe9;e : sur CPAN, beaucoup de r#xe9;pertoires t/ restent hant#xe9;s par la magie noire des origines et ne jouent aucun r#xf4;le de documentation. Une description sous forme de tests peut aussi aider vis-#xe0;-vis de l'ext#xe9;rieur. Romeo And Juliet Love Essay? Prenons l'exemple d'une interface qui ne r#xe9;pond pas #xe0; sa sp#xe9;cification.

Elle est peut-#xea;tre utilis#xe9;e avec ce comportement erron#xe9;. Night Wiesel? On peut aussi ignorer comment elle est utilis#xe9;e, par exemple si une entit#xe9; ext#xe9;rieure est concern#xe9;e. Ap Government And Politics Essay? M#xea;me -- surtout -- si on essay night elie, r#xe9;#xe9;crit compl#xe8;tement le code, on by industry, doit s'assurer que le comportement demeure identique. Expository Elie Wiesel? C'est ce qu'on appelle reproduire les d#xe9;fauts ou #xea;tre bug compatible . On se trouve dans un cas o#xf9; les tests et le code peuvent correspondre et avoir tort tous les deux, mais o#xf9; la n#xe9;cessit#xe9; commande de faire #xe9;voluer les sp#xe9;cifications plut#xf4;t que le code et ses tests. Ce n'est pas l'approche pr#xe9;conis#xe9;e par le projet Phalanx[3], qui place les tests entre le code et sa documentation. Ap Government Essay Answers? Les trois doivent correspondre : la documentation d#xe9;crit le code qui passe les tests. Expository Elie? Le but est de compl#xe9;ter et corriger la documentation, #xe9;crire des tests qui couvrent le plus possible de code, et #xe9;ventuellement corriger les nouveaux bugs ainsi mis en #xe9;vidence. Resume? Le projet Phalanx sera abord#xe9; plus en d#xe9;tail dans un futur article. Disposer d'une liste de tests #xe0; faire passer aide #xe0; d#xe9;terminer ce qui marche d#xe9;j#xe0; et ce qui reste #xe0; faire. Essay Night Wiesel? La non-r#xe9;gression est un aspect important, car une fonctionnalit#xe9; test#xe9;e il y a six mois peut avoir #xe9;t#xe9; cass#xe9;e par des ajouts r#xe9;alis#xe9;s depuis.

Diminuer les risques de r#xe9;gressions rend ainsi plus r#xe9;alistes les estimations et augmente la visibilit#xe9;. #xc0; l'inverse, la situation la pire est celle qui consiste #xe0; repousser les tests #xe0; la fin d'un projet (on parle de co#xfb;t cach#xe9;). By Industry? Une remarque du type #xab; C'est fini #xe0; 99%, il faut juste tester #xbb; est symptomatique d'une telle pathologie. On croise beaucoup d'appellations diff#xe9;rentes, qui se recouvrent plus ou moins. Essay Elie Wiesel? On en citera deux : Tests d#xe9;veloppeur / tests de recette.

On peut s#xe9;parer les tests selon leur r#xf4;le / provenance : tests d#xe9;veloppeurs pour la ma#xee;trise d'œuvre, tests de recette pour le client et la ma#xee;trise d'ouvrage. Les tests d#xe9;veloppeur permettent de bien construire le logiciel. Gcses Have? Les tests de recette assurent qu'il correspond au d#xe9;sir du client. Tests unitaires / tests applicatifs. On peut aussi les classer selon leur granularit#xe9; : tests applicatifs pour des v#xe9;rifications au niveau d'un logiciel tout entier, tests unitaires pour les #xe9;l#xe9;ments d'une granularit#xe9; plus fine qui assurent son fonctionnement interne (m#xe9;thodes, modules). Les tests applicatifs sont parfois appel#xe9;s tests fonctionnels. Expository Elie Wiesel? Ils ont valeur de tests de recette s'ils sont valid#xe9;s par le client. Enfin, des tests #xe9;crits en connaissant le code sont dits bo#xee;te blanche ( white box , par opposition #xe0; black box ) ou bo#xee;te transparente ( glass box , par opposition #xe0; l'opacit#xe9; d'une bo#xee;te noire).

Perl dispose depuis longtemps (Perl 1 l'utilisait d#xe9;j#xe0;) d'une technique de test assez simple mais assez efficace. Cover Role? Elle consiste #xe0; ex#xe9;cuter des scripts qui vont r#xe9;aliser des suites de tests basiques pour v#xe9;rifier le bon fonctionnement du programme test#xe9;. Expository? Chaque test signale s'il s'est bien ex#xe9;cut#xe9; ou pas en affichant sur la sortie standard ok ou not ok . Gcses Have? Cela fonctionne donc sur un principe similaire aux checklists effectu#xe9;es par les ing#xe9;nieurs de l'ESA ou de la NASA (o#xf9; Larry Wall a d'ailleurs travaill#xe9;). Illustrons avec un exemple trivial : Et pour conna#xee;tre l'avancement des tests en cours, il suffit que le script de test affiche avant cela le nombre total de tests qu'il compte ex#xe9;cuter : Cela permet de savoir o#xf9; on essay night elie, en est et de v#xe9;rifier si, #xe0; la fin du script, on gcses have, a bien ex#xe9;cut#xe9; le nombre de tests annonc#xe9;s. L'int#xe9;r#xea;t de cette sortie quelque peu monotone est qu'elle est extr#xea;mement simple #xe0; lire par un autre programme qui va pr#xe9;senter les choses de mani#xe8;re moins verbeuse, par exemple avec une barre de progression. Essay Night Wiesel? Cette sortie devient donc un v#xe9;ritable protocole (m#xea;me s'il est #xe0; sens unique) car les programmes de tests et les programmes d'analyse doivent se mettre d'accord sur le format, la mani#xe8;re de pr#xe9;senter le r#xe9;sultat de chaque test. No Coursework? La version actuelle du protocole offre d'autres fonctionnalit#xe9;s que nous allons maintenant pr#xe9;senter plus en d#xe9;tails. Le protocole pr#xe9;sent#xe9; au paragraphe pr#xe9;c#xe9;dent correspond #xe0; la toute premi#xe8;re version du protocole, toujours valide, mais qui depuis a #xe9;t#xe9; #xe9;tendu pour fournir de nouvelles s#xe9;mantiques. Expository Elie? Andy Lester lui a r#xe9;cemment donn#xe9; le petit nom de TAP[4], pour Test Anything Protocol , suite #xe0; une s#xe9;ance de brainstorming sur AIM assez m#xe9;morable[5]. And Politics Essay? TAP est actuellement d#xe9;fini par le module Test::Harness (maintenu par Andy Lester), qui intercepte et interpr#xe8;te tout ce qu'un script affiche sur sa sortie standard, laissant passer tout message imprim#xe9; sur la sortie d'erreur. Perl Testing: A Developer's Notebook.

Faisant partie de la s#xe9;rie des Developer's Notebooks , pr#xe9;sent#xe9;s sous la forme d'un cahier (avec m#xea;me la marque de la tasse de caf#xe9;), PTDN constitue un vrai catalogue, pr#xe9;sentant succintement une myriade de modules de test et abordant des sujets tr#xe8;s vari#xe9;s, tels que le test de modules li#xe9;s aux bases de donn#xe9;es ou au serveur web Apache, mais entrant rarement dans les d#xe9;tails avanc#xe9;s. Expository Night Elie? S'il lui manque ainsi une pr#xe9;sentation des m#xe9;thodologies de r#xe9;alisation des tests, il fait n#xe9;anmoins office de bonne introduction aux tests automatis#xe9;s en Perl. Le plan est la premi#xe8;re ligne attendue. Have? Il doit indiquer le nombre de tests #xe0; effectuer et est de la forme 1..N . Night Wiesel? Si N vaut z#xe9;ro, l'ex#xe9;cution est arr#xea;t#xe9;e. And Juliet Is More About Love Than Death Essay? Cela permet d'#xe9;viter d'ex#xe9;cuter des tests si on expository essay elie wiesel, sait qu'ils vont #xe9;chouer (parce que le syst#xe8;me n'est pas support#xe9;, qu'une fonctionnalit#xe9; est absente ou que l'utilisateur qui ex#xe9;cute les tests ne dispose pas de privil#xe8;ges suffisants pour une partie des tests). Have? Toute autre valeur positive indique le nombre de tests attendus. Essay? Dans les cas o#xf9; le nombre de tests n'est pas connu #xe0; l'avance (parce qu'il d#xe9;pend de donn#xe9;es variables par exemple), le plan peut alors appara#xee;tre en derni#xe8;re ligne de la sortie, afin de v#xe9;rifier a posteriori si l'ensemble des tests s'est bien d#xe9;roul#xe9;.

Cela n#xe9;cessite par contre une version pas trop ancienne de Test::Harness , qui consid#xe8;re sinon l'absence du plan comme une erreur. Les lignes de test , ou points de tests , constituent la majeure partie d'une sortie TAP. Have No Coursework? Chaque ligne a le format suivant : et se d#xe9;compose de la mani#xe8;re suivante : un #xe9;tat , ok ou not ok qui indique si le test a r#xe9;ussi ou non. un num#xe9;ro , qui doit suivre l'#xe9;tat. Expository? Comme il est optionnel, ce sera sinon #xe0; l'interpr#xe9;teur de maintenir un compteur interne pour v#xe9;rifier que le compte est bon. une description , optionnelle, qui indique bri#xe8;vement ce que fait le test.

Elle ne doit #xe9;videmment pas commencer par un nombre (qui pourrait sinon #xea;tre pris comme num#xe9;ro du test), d'o#xf9; une tradition de la faire commencer par - pour #xe9;viter les probl#xe8;mes. une directive , optionnelle, qui commence par le caract#xe8;re di#xe8;se # . Woolf Essays? Actuellement, seules deux directives sont reconnues, TODO et SKIP . Les directives permettent de modifier l'interpr#xe9;tation de l'#xe9;tat d'un test. Elie Wiesel? Les deux directives support#xe9;es sont : TODO , qui permet de marquer le test comme #xe9;tant #xe0; faire . Gcses? Une explication peut suivre afin d'indiquer la raison. Il peut s'agir d'une fonctionnalit#xe9; #xe0; ajouter ou d'un bug #xe0; corriger. Essay Night Wiesel? On n'attend pas d'un tel test qu'il r#xe9;ussisse, puisqu'il est cens#xe9; #xe9;chouer. Letter For Marketing? Si le test r#xe9;ussit, il est compt#xe9; comme bonus, mais le d#xe9;veloppeur doit alors marquer ce test comme normal.

SKIP , qui permet de sauter l'ex#xe9;cution de ce test. Essay Elie? Une explication peut suivre afin d'indiquer la raison. Il s'agit typiquement de sauter les tests qui ne peuvent pas #xea;tre ex#xe9;cut#xe9;s sur la plate-forme courante par manque de fonctionnalit#xe9;, et qui produiraient donc de faux n#xe9;gatifs, par exemple : modules non install#xe9;s, fonctionnalit#xe9;s indisponibles sur le syst#xe8;me d'exploitation (comme fork() , les liens symboliques, un affichage graphique), connexion #xe0; l'Internet ou #xe0; une base de donn#xe9;es. Outre les lignes de tests, TAP conna#xee;t encore deux autres types de lignes. Is More About Love Than Essay? Le premier est l'arr#xea;t d'urgence, qui se d#xe9;clenche en affichant Bail out! sur la sortie. Expository Essay Night Elie Wiesel? L'ex#xe9;cution s'arr#xea;te net, laissant tomber le reste des tests. Woolf Essays? Une explication peut suivre afin d'indiquer la raison de l'abandon. Les diagnostics sont le dernier type de lignes reconnues par TAP. Expository Essay Night Wiesel? Il s'agit simplement de texte libre permettant d'afficher des informations diverses telles que les modules utilis#xe9;s, les programmes ex#xe9;cut#xe9;s, etc. Apa In-text In The Essay? Une ligne de diagnostic doit commencer par le caract#xe8;re di#xe8;se # . Toute autre ligne n'est pas valide.

Actuellement, le comportement de Test::Harness est d'ignorer silencieusement de telles lignes par souci de compatibilit#xe9; avec l'existant mais il n'est pas garanti que ce comportement soit pr#xe9;serv#xe9; dans le futur. On peut remarquer que, bien qu'il ait #xe9;t#xe9; con#xe7;u de mani#xe8;re a priori ind#xe9;pendante, TAP offre de fait des s#xe9;mantiques tr#xe8;s proches de celles d#xe9;finies par l'environnement de test DejaGnu qui est lui-m#xea;me une extension du standard POSIX 1003.3[10]. #xc9;videmment, vous n'aurez pas #xe0; #xe9;crire vous-m#xea;me des sorties au format TAP (il s'agit de respecter la paresse de chacun), mais vous serez certainement amen#xe9;s #xe0; lire les r#xe9;sultats de vos tests, donc autant comprendre ce qui s'affiche #xe0; l'#xe9;cran. Night Wiesel? La sortie sera en pratique g#xe9;n#xe9;r#xe9;e par des modules appropri#xe9;s, que nous allons d#xe9;crire durant le reste de cet article. Toutefois, si vous h#xe9;ritez d'un code vraiment vieux (ou si vous regardez les tests de certains modules assez anciens), vous constaterez que certains n'utilisent aucun module de test mais #xe9;crivent directement les ok et not ok #xe0; coups de print . Cover Letter For Marketing Manager? On trouve g#xe9;n#xe9;ralement des commentaires parlant de magie noire pour tester le chargement d'un module. Expository Essay Wiesel? #xc7;a en dit long ! Fort heureusement, au fur et #xe0; mesure des ann#xe9;es et de l'#xe9;volution de ce secteur qu'est le test des logiciels, des m#xe9;thodologies ont #xe9;t#xe9; mises au point et des modules ont #xe9;t#xe9; d#xe9;velopp#xe9;s afin de simplifier l'#xe9;criture et la maintenance des programmes de tests. Les modules de g#xe9;n#xe9;ration de TAP les plus utilis#xe9; sont sans conteste Test et Test::More . Woolf Essays? On peut aussi signaler Test::Simple , mais tant son utilisation que son int#xe9;r#xea;t sont marginaux, et comme le reste de l'article va #xea;tre consacr#xe9; #xe0; la pr#xe9;sentation de Test::More , parlons rapidement de Test . Test est un vieux module, int#xe9;gr#xe9; #xe0; la distribution standard de Perl depuis la version 5.005. Wiesel? Il offre la majeure partie des fonctionnalit#xe9;s du protocole TAP, mais son API n'est pas des plus intuitive, offrant principalement une fonction ok() dont la s#xe9;mantique exacte varie en fonction du nombre de param#xe8;tres. Cover Letter? C'est utilisable, mais ouvre la voie #xe0; nombre d'erreurs, certaines difficiles #xe0; rep#xe9;rer quand on wiesel, n'a pas l'habitude. Gcses Have? C'est pour cette raison que son utilisation est d#xe9;courag#xe9;e au profit de Test::More , dont l'interface est bien plus naturelle.

Ouvrons une parenth#xe8;se afin d'insister sur un point qui pourrait para#xee;tre un d#xe9;tail, mais qui a en r#xe9;alit#xe9; des cons#xe9;quences assez importantes : la s#xe9;paration entre le programme de test proprement dit, qui g#xe9;n#xe8;re la suite de ok / not ok , et le programme d'analyse de la sortie du premier, l'interpr#xe9;teur TAP. La s#xe9;paration entre ces deux composants est #xe0; l'origine du protocole TAP. Essay? Sinon, il suffirait de stocker les informations dans un objet et d'afficher le r#xe9;sultat #xe0; la fin de l'ex#xe9;cution du test, comme c'est le cas des programmes bas#xe9;s sur JUnit en Java. Woolf Essays? Certes, mais qu'arrive-t-il si le programme de test plante et meurt ? Rien, aucune sortie n'est g#xe9;n#xe9;r#xe9;e puisque le code en charge de l'affichage des r#xe9;sultats a #xe9;t#xe9; purg#xe9; avec le reste du processus. C'est l#xe0; que la s#xe9;paration entre le g#xe9;n#xe9;rateur et l'interpr#xe9;teur TAP devient tr#xe8;s int#xe9;ressante : comme c'est l'interpr#xe9;teur qui lance l'ex#xe9;cution du g#xe9;n#xe9;rateur, il n'est pas affect#xe9; si ce dernier meurt et peut ainsi d#xe9;tecter que le g#xe9;n#xe9;rateur a inopin#xe9;ment quitt#xe9;. Expository Essay Elie Wiesel? Il peut m#xea;me indiquer apr#xe8;s quel test il s'est plant#xe9;, simplifiant ainsi le travail de recherche du code fautif.

Autre point positif, l'interpr#xe9;teur peut pr#xe9;parer l'environnement du programme de test afin de positionner certaines variables (comme PATH ou LD_LIBRARY_PATH ) ou options de perl(1) pour qu'il puisse trouver des biblioth#xe8;ques ou modules non install#xe9;s, voire, pourquoi pas, afin de l'isoler dans un compartiment logiciel #xe9;tanche. Une autre cons#xe9;quence de la s#xe9;paration entre g#xe9;n#xe9;rateur et interpr#xe9;teur est que les programmes respectifs n'ont pas besoin d'#xea;tre dans le m#xea;me langage. In The Body Essay? Rien n'emp#xea;che ainsi un programme en Java d'#xe9;crire du TAP sur sa sortie standard, qui peut #xea;tre interpr#xe9;t#xe9; par Test::Harness en Perl. Expository Wiesel? D'ailleurs, c'est m#xea;me tellement facile que de plus en plus de programmeurs proposent des portages de Test::Simple ou Test::More sur leur langage favori : C, shell, Java, PHP, Lisp, Haskell, JavaScript. Ap Government And Politics? Et avant cet engouement qui est tout de m#xea;me assez r#xe9;cent, les d#xe9;veloppeurs de la CLR, la machine virtuelle de Microsoft destin#xe9;e #xe0; ex#xe9;cuter les logiciels dit #xab; .Net #xbb;, utilisaient d#xe9;j#xe0; Test::Harness pour piloter leurs tests de non-r#xe9;gression. Voici donc un moyen subversif et d#xe9;tourn#xe9; d'introduire Perl dans un environnement de d#xe9;veloppement qui n'utilise pas ce langage : car s'il est tr#xe8;s facile de porter les s#xe9;mantiques de Test::More sur n'importe quel langage digne de ce nom, il n'existait jusqu'#xe0; pr#xe9;sent qu'un seul interpr#xe9;teur TAP, Test::Harness . Expository? Mais comme celui-ci a des limitations assez s#xe9;v#xe8;res (il d#xe9;rive apr#xe8;s tout d'un programme datant de presque 20 ans !), et que la tentative de refonte a #xe9;t#xe9; jug#xe9;e infructueuse, un hackathon a #xe9;t#xe9; organis#xe9; lors de YAPC::NA 2006 #xe0; Chicago pour discuter de l'avenir de TAP. Have? Les participants ont d#xe9;cid#xe9; de r#xe9;diger les sp#xe9;cifications d'un nouvel analyseur TAP, en tenant compte des besoins actuels et futurs, tout en pr#xe9;servant la compatibilit#xe9; arri#xe8;re.

L'activit#xe9; est telle qu'en moins d'un mois, pas moins de quatre analyseurs diff#xe9;rents sont en d#xe9;veloppement, dont un en Perl6 et un en Parrot. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Le but est de faciliter l'utilisation de Perl comme moteur de test avec les autres langages d'une part et d'offrir le maximum de flexibilit#xe9; dans la pr#xe9;sentation des r#xe9;sultats d'autre part. Citation In The Body Of Your? Un article ult#xe9;rieur montrera ainsi comment #xe9;crire son propre Test::Harness et personnaliser ses rapports. Comme annonc#xe9; pr#xe9;c#xe9;demment, Test::More offre une interface assez naturelle #xe0; utiliser, bas#xe9;e sur un ensemble de fonctions r#xe9;pondant #xe0; des s#xe9;mantiques bien pr#xe9;cises. Expository Essay Elie Wiesel? Voyons lesquelles. La fonction plan() permet de sp#xe9;cifier le plan du script de test. By Industry? Elle doit bien s#xfb;r n'#xea;tre invoqu#xe9;e qu'une et une seule fois au cours du flot d'ex#xe9;cution sous peine d'erreur fatale. plan() supporte trois options mutuellement exclusives, qui peuvent aussi #xea;tre pass#xe9;es directement en param#xe8;tre lors de l'importation de Test::More . tests = $NbTests correspond #xe0; ce qu'on conna#xee;t d#xe9;j#xe0;, et permet d'indiquer le nombre de tests pr#xe9;vus.

On peut indiquer une expression, du moment qu'elle est calculable au moment de l'ex#xe9;cution de la ligne correspondante. Si le nombre de tests est fixe et connu : Si le nombre de tests est calculable : no_plan est #xe0; utiliser si le nombre de tests n'est pas connu ou pas calculable #xe0; l'avance. Essay Night Elie? Test::More se chargera alors de g#xe9;n#xe9;rer un plan a posteriori #xe0; la fin de l'ex#xe9;cution du script. skip_all = $Raison permet de sauter l'ex#xe9;cution d'un script qui ne peut pas r#xe9;ussir pour une raison d#xe9;termin#xe9;e (syst#xe8;me non support#xe9;, droits insuffisants). La fonction ok() permet de tester une valeur bool#xe9;enne, et accepte en plus un argument optionnel, la description du test. Les fonctions is() et isnt() v#xe9;rifient, comme leur nom l'indique, que deux valeurs sont respectivement #xe9;gales ou diff#xe9;rentes.

Ces fonctions attendent trois arguments : les deux premiers sont respectivement la valeur #xe0; tester et la valeur attendue, le troisi#xe8;me est la description du test. Cover Letter For Marketing Role? La comparaison entre les deux valeurs est effectu#xe9;e avec eq (pour is() )ou ne (pour isnt() ). Vous aurez remarqu#xe9; que l'exemple de is() est #xe9;quivalent au second exemple de ok() donn#xe9; pr#xe9;c#xe9;demment. Essay Night? Exact. Ap Government Answers? Quel est l'int#xe9;r#xea;t alors d'utiliser la fonction is() ? Simple, comme elle comporte la s#xe9;mantique que les deux valeurs qu'on lui passe doivent #xea;tre identiques, elle peut en retour fournir des informations suppl#xe9;mentaires en cas d'#xe9;chec du test : Ce qui est quand m#xea;me plus int#xe9;ressant car on essay, sait imm#xe9;diatement o#xf9; chercher l'erreur (voire pourquoi cette erreur se produit). Attention toutefois #xe0; ne pas tenter de tester les valeurs bool#xe9;ennes avec ces fonctions. Cover Letter? En effet, m#xea;me si.

semble une bonne id#xe9;e (et qui, dans cet exemple pr#xe9;cis, va fonctionner), la s#xe9;mantique du test n'est plus la m#xea;me. Elie Wiesel? Ici, on body of your essay, ne v#xe9;rifie pas si exists $hash est vrai (c'est-#xe0;-dire savoir si la cl#xe9; key est pr#xe9;sente dans %hash ), mais seulement si cette expression renvoie 1. Expository Wiesel? C'est tr#xe8;s diff#xe9;rent car si, sur le plan technique, cela peut fonctionner (ce qui n'est pas garanti), sur le plan s#xe9;mantique le test est incorrect. Pourquoi n'est-ce pas garanti ? Dans quels cas exists pourrait renvoyer une valeur diff#xe9;rente de 1 ? Par exemple si le hash est li#xe9; ( tie() ), la fonction EXISTS() sous-jacente peut renvoyer n'importe quelle valeur vraie. Le m#xea;me pi#xe8;ge existe aussi pour les valeurs fausses, qui peuvent #xea;tre z#xe9;ro, la cha#xee;ne vide '' ou undef . Cover Letter? La r#xe8;gle g#xe9;n#xe9;rale #xe0; suivre est donc d'utiliser ok() pour tester les valeurs bool#xe9;ennes, et is() (ou isnt() ) pour tester les #xe9;galit#xe9;s (ou in#xe9;galit#xe9;s). Pour des comparaisons autres que l'#xe9;galit#xe9;, cmp_ok() est l#xe0; pour #xe7;a. Expository Essay Night Elie? Cette fonction accepte quatre arguments : la valeur #xe0; tester, l'op#xe9;rateur de comparaison, la valeur attendue et la description du test (optionnelle). L'avantage d'utiliser cmp_ok() plut#xf4;t que de coder la comparaison dans un ok() est quand cas d'#xe9;chec, l'affichage offre plus d'informations : Les fonctions like() et unlike() permettent de v#xe9;rifier si une valeur correspond (ou ne correspond pas) #xe0; un motif d'expression r#xe9;guli#xe8;re. Romeo Is More About Essay? De mani#xe8;re #xe9;tonnamment peu surprenante, elles attendent trois arguments : en premier la valeur #xe0; tester, puis le motif de recherche et enfin la description du test. Elie? Le motif peut aussi bien #xea;tre fourni en utilisant l'op#xe9;rateur qr/../ qu'en tant que cha#xee;ne de caract#xe8;res /../ afin de rester compatible avec les versions pr#xe9;c#xe9;dentes de Perl qui n'offraient pas cet op#xe9;rateur.

La fonction is_deeply() s'utilise exactement comme is_ok() , si ce n'est qu'elle accepte en argument des structures dont elle peut comparer le contenu en profondeur. Quoique tr#xe8;s pratique pour des structures simples #xe0; moyennement complexes, elle montre rapidement ses limitations sur des structures v#xe9;ritablement complexes, comportant des objets trop exotiques pour elle (objets, r#xe9;f#xe9;rences de code, fermetures, descripteurs de fichiers), ou avec un contenu trop variable. Woolf Essays? D'autres modules plus adapt#xe9;s peuvent alors prendre le relais. Essay Elie Wiesel? Citons Test::Deep , Test::Differences pour les modules de test et Data::Dump::Streamer comme module g#xe9;n#xe9;rique mais terriblement puissant. Les fonctions use_ok() et require_ok() remplacent tr#xe8;s avantageusement ce qui n#xe9;cessitait avant un peu de magie noire. Woolf Essays? Elles permettent comme on expository night elie, peut s'en douter de tester le chargement et l'importation un module. Letter Manager Role? Leur utilisation est quasiment identique aux use et require habituel. Une erreur de chargement provoquera par exemple cet affichage : Il est toujours possible de passer #xe0; use_ok() des options d'importation : #xc0; noter toutefois que contrairement #xe0; use qui s'ex#xe9;cute (et donc le module qu'il charge) d#xe8;s la phase de compilation, use_ok() ne peut #xea;tre invoqu#xe9; que pendant la phase d'ex#xe9;cution. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? S'il est n#xe9;cessaire que le module soit charg#xe9; au plus t#xf4;t, il faut alors englober l'appel de use_ok() dans un bloc BEGIN : Cela devient alors parfaitement #xe9;quivalent #xe0; use Power . La fonction isa_ok() est le pendant de la m#xe9;thode isa() et permet de v#xe9;rifier si un objet ou une r#xe9;f#xe9;rence est du type escompt#xe9;.

Ainsi, pour une r#xe9;f#xe9;rence : et pour les objets, cela g#xe8;re l'h#xe9;ritage : La fonction can_ok() permet de v#xe9;rifier si un objet ou une classe dispose des m#xe9;thodes indiqu#xe9;es : ce qui compte pour un seul test : Si vous pr#xe9;f#xe9;rez g#xe9;n#xe9;rer un test pour chaque m#xe9;thode, il suffit de l'encadrer dans une boucle : ce qui produira alors : Comme on woolf essays, peut s'en douter, ces fonctions permettent de signifier directement qu'un test a pass#xe9; ou a #xe9;chou#xe9;. Expository Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Elles acceptent comme seul argument (optionnel) le descriptif du test. Woolf Essays? #xc9;videment, elles sont #xe0; employer avec parcimonie. La fonction diag() permet d'#xe9;crire des diagnostics de mani#xe8;re propre. Essay Night Elie? Elle s'utilise un peu comme print() et se charge toute seule de g#xe9;rer les probl#xe8;mes de retour #xe0; la ligne et autres d#xe9;tails inint#xe9;ressants. Resume By Industry? C'est la fonction #xe0; utiliser pour transmettre des informations diverses et vari#xe9;es au travers de TAP : Comme cela a #xe9;t#xe9; pr#xe9;sent#xe9; plus haut, il est possible de sauter un script de test si on expository night elie, peut d#xe9;tecter qu'il va #xe9;chouer pour une raison d#xe9;termin#xe9;e. Gcses No Coursework? Toutefois, il y a des cas o#xf9; seuls certains tests du script seraient #xe0; sauter, tout en conservant l'ex#xe9;cution des autres. Essay Night Wiesel? Test::More offre une #xe9;l#xe9;gante solution pour g#xe9;rer ces cas, en proposant l'utilisation de blocs permettant d'isoler les tests #xe0; #xe9;viter. Woolf Essays? La forme g#xe9;n#xe9;rale d'utilisation est : La fonction skip() prend deux arguments : le premier est la raison pour laquelle les tests qui suivent pourraient ne pas #xea;tre ex#xe9;cut#xe9;s, le second est le nombre de tests #xe0; sauter. Essay Elie? Quand skip() est ex#xe9;cut#xe9;e, le reste du code jusqu'#xe0; la fin du bloc n'est donc pas ex#xe9;cut#xe9;, et Test::More se charge de g#xe9;n#xe9;rer les ok indiquant des tests r#xe9;ussis mais saut#xe9;s. Resume By Industry? C'est pour cette raison qu'il est important de pr#xe9;ciser le nombre exact de tests inclus dans le bloc SKIP afin que le compte soit bon. Illustrons avec un exemple : Ici, on essay wiesel, essaye d'abord de t#xe9;l#xe9;charger une page depuis un site web en utilisant LWP::Simple . Resume? Si cela ne marche pas, ce sera probablement d#xfb; au fait que le programme ne peut pas directement acc#xe9;der au web, et en cons#xe9;quence les 10 tests suivants sont saut#xe9;s.

Autre exemple, si on expository elie wiesel, a besoin d'un module particulier : Dans ce cas, les tests qui suivent ont besoin du module Test::Warnings pour tester les messages d'avertissement, mais comme ce n'est pas un point crucial, on ap government essay, se contente de les sauter si ce module n'est pas pr#xe9;sent. #xc0; noter qu'il est parfaitement possible d'imbriquer les blocs SKIP , chacun devant simplement poss#xe9;der le label SKIP ou Test::More ne pourra pas faire fonctionner sa magie. Dernier point, il ne faut pas sauter les tests qui #xe9;chouent parce qu'il y a un bug dans votre programme ou que le code n'est pas encore #xe9;crit car ce n'est pas du tout la m#xea;me s#xe9;mantique. Expository Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Test::More offre justement un autre m#xe9;canisme pour cela, les tests TODO (#xe0; faire). Ce m#xe9;canisme permet d'ex#xe9;cuter un test dont on gcses have no coursework, s'attend #xe0; ce qu'il #xe9;choue et de pr#xe9;ciser en cons#xe9;quence qu'on ne veut pas le comptabiliser dans les tests qui ont #xe9;chou#xe9;s. Expository Essay Wiesel? La syntaxe d'utilisation est la suivante : Les tests au sein du bloc TODO seront ex#xe9;cut#xe9;s mais ne seront pas compt#xe9;s comme des #xe9;checs m#xea;me si c'est le cas. And Politics Essay? Et pour les tests qui pourraient en cas d'#xe9;chec planter le programme ou au mieux laisser l'environnement trop instable pour le reste du script, il est possible de les sauter comme dans un bloc SKIP : Cette fois, les tests au sein du bloc ne seront pas du tout ex#xe9;cut#xe9;s et seront affich#xe9;s comme des #xe9;checs, toujours sans #xea;tre compt#xe9;s comme tels. La r#xe9;ponse peut para#xee;tre #xe9;vidente mais une recherche avec Gonzui montre que parmi les scripts de test sur le CPAN qui utilisent TODO , une bonne partie ne l'utilisent pas v#xe9;ritablement de la mani#xe8;re document#xe9;e et conseill#xe9;e. Une bonne solution est de consid#xe9;rer que ce qui rel#xe8;ve du programmeur (bug non corrig#xe9;, fonctionnalit#xe9; non cod#xe9;e) doit #xea;tre trait#xe9; dans des blocs TODO . Expository Night? Ces tests apparaissent alors comme une liste de ce qui reste #xe0; faire.

Quand le code a #xe9;t#xe9; #xe9;crit ou corrig#xe9; et que les tests passent, ils peuvent alors #xea;tre sortis du bloc TODO pour devenir des tests normaux. Les autres cas, qui sont g#xe9;n#xe9;ralement li#xe9;s #xe0; l'environnement ou aux r#xe9;ponses de l'utilisateur (connexion #xe0; l'Internet ou #xe0; une base de donn#xe9;es, disponibilit#xe9; d'un module ou d'une fonctionnalit#xe9; de Perl) sont #xe0; traiter dans des blocs SKIP . Essay Answers? Si tout le script d#xe9;pend d'une fonctionnalit#xe9; donn#xe9;e, le plus simple est alors d'utiliser plan skip_all pour #xe9;viter son ex#xe9;cution. Test::Simple et Test::More sont inclus dans la distribution standard de Perl depuis la version 5.8.0 et sont compatibles avec des versions de Perl aussi anciennes que la 5.004, ce qui devrait rassurer m#xea;mes les plus conservateurs des administrateurs syst#xe8;mes. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Toutefois, on and juliet about than death, ne saurait trop vous conseiller de mettre #xe0; jour ces modules, ainsi que Test::Harness , en utilisant les versions plus r#xe9;centes disponibles sur le CPAN. Test::Harness, l'interpr#xe9;teur de r#xe9;sultats. Tout #xe7;a, c'est bien beau, mais ces sorties restent tout de m#xea;me bien verbeuses. Expository Night? Et en pr#xe9;sence d'une grande quantit#xe9; de tests, #xe7;a peut d#xe9;filer #xe0; vive allure. Woolf Essays? Heureusement, afin de permettre de r#xe9;sumer tout ceci, le module Test::Harness est l#xe0; pour analyser et interpr#xe9;ter pour nous cette quantit#xe9; d'informations. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Test::Harness est d'ailleurs actuellement le seul v#xe9;ritable analyseur et interpr#xe9;teur de TAP (#xe0; l'exception de Test.Harness en JavaScript #xe9;tant donn#xe9; que ce langage est pour le moment encore tr#xe8;s li#xe9; aux navigateurs web).

C'est la raison pour laquelle la sp#xe9;cification de TAP est distribu#xe9;e avec ce module. Comme cela a #xe9;t#xe9; pr#xe9;cis#xe9; avant, le r#xf4;le de Test::Harness est m#xea;me de piloter l'ex#xe9;cution des tests afin de recueillir le maximum d'informations. Gcses Have No Coursework? Ainsi, lorsque vous ex#xe9;cutez make test , vous invoquez en r#xe9;alit#xe9; la fonction test_harness() avec les param#xe8;tres appropri#xe9;s. Expository Essay Elie? Cette fonction se charge de lancer l'ex#xe9;cution des scripts de tests pass#xe9;s en param#xe8;tres, d'analyser leur sortie et de la r#xe9;sumer pour n'afficher que les erreurs #xe9;ventuelles. Prenons comme exemple le module Regexp::Assemble de David Landgren. Resume By Industry? Voici ce qu'on voit #xe0; l'#xe9;cran pendant l'ex#xe9;cution de la suite de tests : Pour chaque script, Test::Harness capture la sortie et affiche un compteur indiquant le nombre de tests r#xe9;ussis et restants (quand il est connu). Expository Essay Night? Dans le premier script, 00_basic.t , un diag() permet de savoir quelle version de Regexp::Assemble est test#xe9;e. Cover Letter For Marketing Role? Si tout se passe bien, la suite se termine : Test::Harness affiche un r#xe9;sum#xe9; indiquant que tout s'est bien d#xe9;roul#xe9;, et fournit quelques statistiques.

Ici, 16 120 tests ont #xe9;t#xe9; effectu#xe9;s en 18 secondes. Toutefois, avant d'obtenir le message All tests successful sur un large ensemble de syst#xe8;mes, la route de David a #xe9;t#xe9; sem#xe9;e de quelques petites emb#xfb;ches : On peut voir que pour le script 05_hostmatch.t , David avait bien pens#xe9; #xe0; utiliser un bloc SKIP pour le cas o#xf9; le module Test::File::Contents qu'il utilise ne serait pas disponible. Essay Night? par contre il avait oubli#xe9; de faire de m#xea;me dans 01_insert.t avec Test::Differences , d'o#xf9; une erreur de compilation. Apa In-text Citation Body Of Your? Test::Harness se rend compte que le script ne s'est pas ex#xe9;cut#xe9; correctement car il s'est brutalement interrompu et a renvoy#xe9; un statut de sortie diff#xe9;rent de z#xe9;ro. Une fois cette erreur corrig#xe9;e, David a ajout#xe9; d'autres tests, et ce faisant de nouvelles erreurs :-) Dans ce cas, le test num#xe9;ro 18 du script 03_str.t a #xe9;chou#xe9;. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? Comme il s'agit d'un cmp_ok() , il affiche comme on cover letter manager, s'y attend les valeurs attendue et obtenue.

Comme montr#xe9; dans les exemples pr#xe9;c#xe9;dents, l'ex#xe9;cution de la suite de tests se lance par la commande make test (ou Build test pour les utilisateurs de Module::Build ). Essay Night? Pour que cela fonctionne, il est pr#xe9;f#xe9;rable de respecter une convention concernant le placement et le nommage des scripts. Apa In-text Citation? En effet, ceux-ci doivent avoir l'extension .t et #xea;tre plac#xe9;s dans le r#xe9;pertoire t/ de la distribution afin d'#xea;tre d#xe9;couverts. #xc0; noter que ces scripts peuvent comporter des options sur la shebang line (comme -T pour activer le tainting mode ) sans provoquer d'erreur car lors de l'ex#xe9;cution ces options seront correctement pass#xe9;es #xe0; l'interpr#xe9;teur perl . Bien s#xfb;r, ces scripts #xe9;tant des programmes Perl normaux, il est tout #xe0; fait possible de les ex#xe9;cuter un #xe0; un, #xab; #xe0; la main #xbb;. Expository Essay Elie Wiesel? Toutefois il faut alors penser #xe0; ajouter au chemin de recherche le r#xe9;pertoire contenant le ou les modules #xe0; tester : Dans le cas de modules compil#xe9;s, il faut ajouter d'autres chemins, mais il est alors plus simple d'utiliser le module blib qui se charge de #xe7;a : ou, ce qui est encore plus simple, d'utiliser la commande prove(1) , install#xe9;e avec les versions r#xe9;centes de Test::Harness : Notez que pour ces deux dernier cas, vous ne devez pas oublier d'ex#xe9;cuter un make avant afin de reg#xe9;n#xe9;rer les fichiers dans le r#xe9;pertoire blib/ . Malgr#xe9; la longueur de cet article, nous n'avons fait qu'effleurer le sommet de l'iceberg que repr#xe9;sentent les tests en Perl. Gcses Have? Toutefois il #xe9;tait n#xe9;cessaire afin de commencer sur des bases connues. Expository Essay Night? Les articles suivants pr#xe9;senteront les m#xe9;thodologies d'#xe9;criture des tests et introduiront des modules de tests fournissant de nouvelles s#xe9;mantiques afin de r#xe9;pondre #xe0; des besoins pr#xe9;cis, tout en s'int#xe9;grant dans l'environnement standard de test de Perl. [2] Test::Tutorial Presentation - Chromatic et Michael G. Ap Government And Politics Essay? Schwern, [5] Naming TAP, the expository night elie, Test::Harness protocol - [7] Perl Testing: A Developer's Notebook - Ian Langworth et chromatic, O'Reilly Associates, 2005, ISBN 0-596-10092-2, [8] The Pragmatic Programmer: from and politics essay, journeyman to expository essay, master - Andrew Hunt et Dave Thomas, Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN 0-201-61622-X. [9] Perl Best Practices - Damian Conway, O'Reilly Associates, 2005, ISBN 0-596-00173-8, ; Disponible en fran#xe7;ais sous le titre De l'art de programmer en Perl (O'Reilly 2006, ISBN 2-84177-369-8). S#xe9;bastien Aperghis-Tramoni, Maddingue - .pm. S#xe9;bastien Aperghis-Tramoni est administrateur syst#xe8;mes dans le Sud de la France. Woolf Essays? Il maintient par ailleurs une vingtaine de modules sur le CPAN et essaye d'aider au d#xe9;veloppement de Perl en fournissant des services comme Perl cover et un Gonzui du CPAN.

Philippe Blayo - Paris. Philippe Blayo est davantage d#xe9;veloppeur. Wiesel? Il a mis en place des tests depuis 2001 sur des projets en Perl et dans d'autres langages. Merci aux Mongueurs qui ont assur#xe9; la relecture de cet article. Copyright Les Mongueurs de Perl, 2001-2011 pour le site.

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Root Cause Analysis of a Sentinel Event Essay Sample. A root cause analysis (RCA) is a method by which we can examine a serious adverse event and identify the cause, or causes, that led up to the event. Although personnel are involved in these events, the expository essay elie wiesel primary purpose of the RCA is to identify the cause, not to assign blame (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014). It is through identifying a cause, or causes, of an adverse event that we can improve on patient care processes and letter for marketing role thereby patient safety. The RCA is designed as a specific protocol that starts with data collection looking at the sequence of events that led to the adverse event (Connelly, 2012).

Additionally a review of the expository night elie patient record along with interviews of the personnel involved provides valuable insight into how the patient care processes broke down. Hospitals are complex organizations that have many layers of safety erected to cover letter manager protect the patient from action taken by healthcare providers. These safety measures include policies, protocols, and guidelines. The reason for multiple layers, or measures, is that there can be weaknesses in the process that forms an opening for essay night an error to occur (Elliott, Page, and woolf essays Worrall-Carter, 2012). The fundamental goal of the RCA is to prevent future patients from being harmed through understanding how an expository adverse event could occur. Root Cause Analysis. We are examining the events surrounding the treatment of Mr. B in the emergency department for a dislocated left shoulder. Ap Government And Politics Answers? Prior to Mr.

B’s arrival at the emergency department (E.D.) on Thursday afternoon he reports that while showering he “just blacked out” and expository essay night elie wiesel when he awoke his left arm was quite painful and obviously disfigured. Mr. Resume? B was brought to expository essay wiesel the hospital by his son and apa in-text citation in the body essay taken by Nurse J to an examination room to obtain a health history and physical assessment. Important facts to elie wiesel know are: Mr. B was sixty-seven years old; he had no known allergies; he appeared to be in and juliet about death essay, moderate distress from the pain of his injury; he weighed 230 pounds or 104.5 kilograms; his left arm is exhibiting signs of impaired circulation with a capillary refill time (CRT) of six seconds; his vital signs on expository essay night elie wiesel, arrival are blood pressure 140/96, heart rate 97 and regular, temperature 98.8, and resume respiratory rate 22. His past medical history included: hypertension, a back injury (old), gastric reflux, and depression. Most recently his primary care physician noted his cholesterol and lipids were elevated. Expository Essay Night? Medication reconciliation included: Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), Tenormin, Prilosec, Crestor, Cymbalta, and Lortab prn for pain. The E.D. physician examined Mr.

B and the decision was made to relocate the shoulder using moderate sedation. The shoulder was successfully reduced at 1625 hours and letter manager role Mr. B tolerated it well. At 1643 hours Mr. B’s son comes out of the room to report that the night monitor was alarming. Nurse J finds Mr. B not breathing, no palpable pulse, a blood pressure reading of 58/30, and pulse oximetry reading 79%. The code team was called and after thirty minutes there was a return of a pulse and the blood pressure recorded was 110/70. Mr.

B was transferred to a tertiary care facility for advanced care but after seven days it was determined that he suffered brain death. The family decided to remove life-support and Mr. B died. The root cause analysis will ask several questions in ap government and politics answers, order to identify the cause, or underlying causes, that contributed to the occurrence of an adverse event. Like the toddler that continually asks “Why” we will ask “Why” until we can be satisfied that there is good comprehension of how this adverse event occurred. What happened? The decision was made to perform a closed reduction of the shoulder with moderate sedation. There is a policy for moderate sedation that requires the patient be continuously monitored throughout the procedure and until discharge criteria are met. As stated in the policy, continuous monitoring includes blood pressure, ECG, and pulse oximetry; the ECG monitoring would give evidence of respiratory rate and effort. The discharge criteria in the policy states the patient will be fully awake, vital signs stable, no nausea or vomiting, and night wiesel the patient is able to void.

All practitioners that provide moderate sedation must complete a training module prior to providing moderate sedation, this includes personnel assisting with the procedure. The first process failure was not meeting the ap government answers required monitoring of the patient as mandated by the moderate sedation policy. In the absence of ECG or respiratory monitoring the sedation administered produced apnea then asystole without ED personnel being aware of acute changes in expository essay wiesel, the patient’s condition. There is no explanation for citation body essay why the patient was not on continuous ECG monitoring. Equipment was found to be in good working order. Another causative factor was the drug selection. The same moderate sedation-training module that practitioners complete contains a section on appropriate drug selection. Moderate sedation is designed to alter the level of consciousness of the patient while enabling the patient to maintain independently a patent airway (Pinto, Bhimani, Milne, and Nicholson, 2013). The drugs used during this procedure were a potent benzodiazepine and expository essay night elie opioid analgesic. Woolf Essays? If using Valium for sedation/relaxation a narcotic dose is night elie wiesel, reduced by by industry one third or omitted entirely (Medscape, 2014). The addition of the full dose of an opioid analgesic, in this case Dilaudid, was enough to cause slow, shallow respirations, and depress the respiratory effort enough to cause apnea.

The moderate sedation module contains a section on expository essay night wiesel, dosing ranges/guidelines. Mr. B received, within a fifteen minute period, Valium 10mg intravenously and Dilaudid 4mg intravenously. A Valium dosing recommendation for sedation in an intensive care unit (ICU) is 0.03mg/kg up to answers 0.1mg/kg at an interval range of thirty minutes to six hours. For Mr. B this would have been a dose range of 3.12mg, as the low, up to 10.4mg for an upper limit. Mr. B received 10mg of Valium in ten minutes with a full dose of an opioid analgesic. Both drugs used for this procedure are known to cause respiratory depression. This combination for moderate sedation was not the best choice. The adverse event demonstrated a lack of knowledge regarding acceptable dosing range and interval.

Consideration must be given to the staff mix of the essay wiesel ED that day. The emergency department has six treatment rooms and had three healthcare providers and resume one support staff present. Nursing personnel included an RN with critical care experience and an LPN. Expository Essay Wiesel? The emergency department is recognized as a critical care environment and not endorsed as a primary work place for a licensed practical nurse by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN). Critical care areas require advanced education to enable the nurse to critically think about the in the essay care priorities of the assigned patients. The presence of other patients requiring care, including an eight-month old infant with a respiratory complaint, would indicate the elie need for nursing personnel with advanced education and critical thinking skills. The Institute of Medicine has issued a report in 2010 calling for eighty percent of nurses to obtain a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) degree by 2020 (Institute of ap government essay answers Medicine, 2010). It is expository wiesel, known that the understanding of the apa in-text citation of your science surrounding best practices by the nurse has a direct impact on the quality of night elie wiesel care provided. A moderate sedation procedure requires competence and critical thinking skills to ensure the safety of the patient. The patient, in this case Mr.

B, receiving moderate sedation requires the presence, and undivided attention, of the physician and the nurse. This procedure then left the LPN and unit secretary to monitor the activity in the other rooms. This was not an resume by industry optimal skill set to meet ED patient needs. Another concern is expository night wiesel, that no recognition was given in the record that there had been a lapse of time from romeo love injury to presentation at the ED. You can presume that Mr. B showered some time in the morning but did not present to the ED until 1530 hours.

The lapse of time from injury to presentation at the ED has allowed the essay elie muscles to tighten, or spasm, in the abnormal position. Shoulder dislocation is the most common of joint dislocations reported and should be addressed urgently. The dislocation can impinge the axillary nerve, damage the in the body of your rotator cuff more often in older patients, or constrict the circulation (McBride and Kalogianitis, 2011). It was noted that the left arm shows compromised circulation with a CRT of six seconds. There is expository essay, no supporting documentation to indicate further examination of the left arm or shoulder was completed before reducing the dislocation.

There was no in depth investigation as to why the capillary refill time was prolonged. The abbreviated patient history and assessment is one of the underlying causes for this adverse event. Documentation informs us that the patient “just blacked out” but other than obtaining that statement there is no investigation as to why. The recording of the pulse indicates that it was regular when palpated and resume the blood pressure elevated. At sixty-seven years old and with a diagnosis of hypertension it is possible that there was a circulation issue. The patient history indicates treatment for hypertension, gastric reflux, depression and elevated lipids. There is no documentation that the cause for the “black out” was analyzed. The medication reconciliation obtained in the initial interview is incomplete. No mention is expository night, made of the dosage of prescribed medications, or the last time a medication dose was taken. Lortab is listed as a medication the patient takes for pain as needed, but no dosage or last dose information is collected. The medications selected for the moderate sedation was based on the incomplete medication reconciliation information and have presumed that the patient would have a tolerance to sedative and night narcotic medications.

When the patient is older than sixty years of age it is letter manager role, recommended to get an x-ray or ultrasound of the joint to make sure there is not damage to the rotator cuff or fracture of the humeral head (Shin, Yun, Kim, and Yoo, 2012). Essay Night Elie Wiesel? The causes of dislocation in an older person are different than for the young, but most protocols surrounding closed reduction of a dislocated shoulder are formulated on a younger person. The older person more often dislocates the shoulder related to letter for marketing manager loss of elasticity and support from the cuff and surrounding musculature. In this case closed reduction using moderate sedation was the only option considered. First time dislocation with circulatory compromise may require operative reduction of the joint to preserve the function of the joint and relieve the circulatory compromise, especially in the older patient. There is no evidence to support understanding the differences in treatment for night elie older versus younger patients presenting with shoulder dislocation. Just after successful reduction of Mr. B’s shoulder there was an emergency call over about the radio. Essay Wiesel? The staffing for the ED was insufficient to meet the rising acuity level. In addition to the radio call from paramedics there is noted to be an citation body influx of people presenting in the ED lobby wanting to be seen. Two nurses were insufficient to meet the growing demand for patient care.

Of the three patients occupying ED rooms, the decision was made that the female with a sore throat complaint and the infant with the essay night elie respiratory complaint could be discharged. The nurses were involved in apa in-text in the essay, discharging these patients while admitting the patient in acute respiratory distress. No healthcare provider was monitoring Mr. Essay Night? B. Additional back up staff was available to help care for patients in the ED as acuity and volume increased. No request was made for additional help so Mr. B went unattended. The dynamap was set for a five-minute interval, recording blood pressure and pulse oximetry reading. There is no documentation that the by industry data being recorded was noted and the patient assessed. There is a notation that there was pulse oximetry alarm of eight-five percent oxygen saturation that a nurse responded to by resetting the alarm and checking a blood pressure. There was no assessment of the patient completed at that time.

It is a measure of the growing alarm fatigue experienced by healthcare providers that The Joint Commission (TJC) has made “improving the expository essay night wiesel safety of clinical alarm systems” one of the national patient safety goals (Horkan, 2014, p. 83). The alarm of eight-five present oxygenation saturation should have elicited a physical assessment of the patient. This alarm was lost in resume, the admission of a patient in acute respiratory distress. Expository Night Elie Wiesel? The response to the full code of Mr. And Juliet About? B was appropriate.

The ECG monitor was now attached and the rhythm on the monitor immediately recognized as ventricular fibrillation. CPR was promptly initiated. An advanced airway was placed. Mr. Essay? B was defibrillated and reversal agents for essay answers the sedation were given. Mr.

B never revived but did have return of a pulse with adequate perfusion documented by the blood pressure reading of 110/70. Mr. B was transferred to a tertiary facility for expository wiesel advanced care. Causative Factors. 1. Not implementing the patient safety measures specified in the moderate sedation policy. 2. Medications selected for the procedure requiring moderate sedation. 3. Lack of knowledgeable regarding medication dose ranges and intervals.

4. Resume By Industry? Inadequate staff mix for the acuity of patients. 5. Night? Not recognizing the woolf essays importance of elie wiesel circulatory compromise. 6. Abbreviated history and physical. 7. Incomplete medication reconciliation. 8. Cover For Marketing Manager? Lack of knowledge regarding varying treatment recommendations for different age groups. 9. Staffing insufficient to meet patient acuity and volume. 10. Alarm fatigue. This sentinel event illuminates the need for essay night continuing education on the elements included in the moderate sedation policy and training module.

All practitioners, and nursing personnel, that engage in moderate sedation procedures must successfully complete the training module annually. We must examine the staffing of all critical care environments to ensure that the staff assigned is knowledgeable and appropriate for that area in accordance with national standards. There needs to be education on age appropriate treatment modalities to assure the community we serve that the care provided is optimal. On the resume first encounter with a patient we must thoroughly document their history, medical and night elie wiesel medication, when able, before proceeding with a plan of care. Connelly, L. M. (2012).

Root Cause Analysis. MEDSURG Nursing, 21(5), 316, 313. Elliott, M., Page, K., and Worrall-Carter, L. Ap Government Answers? (2012). Reason’s accident causation model: Application to expository night elie wiesel adverse events in acute care. Contemporary Nurse, 43(1), 22-28. Horkan, A. M. (2014). Exploring the Evidence Alarm Fatigue and Patient Safety. Resume? Nephrology Nursing Journal, 41(1), 83-85. Expository Essay Elie Wiesel? Institute of Medicine at the National Academies. No Coursework? (October, 2010). Expository Elie? Retrieved from

/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Nursing%20Education202010% McBride, T., and Kalogrianitis, S. Romeo Is More About Love Death Essay? (2011). Dislocations of the shoulder joint. Expository Essay Night? Trauma, 14(1), 47-56. Ogg, M. J. (2012). Patient monitoring during moderate sedation administration. AORN Journal, 95(4), 541-543. Cover For Marketing Role? Pinto, R.F., Bhimani, M., Milne, W.K., and Nicholson, K. (2013). Procedural sedation and analgesia in rural and emergency departments. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine, 18(4), 130-136. Shin, S-J., Yun, Y-H., Kim, D.J., and Yoo, J.D. (2012). Treatment of Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Dislocation in Patients Older Than 60 Years. The American Journal of essay night wiesel Sports Medicine, 40(4), 822-827. U.S.

Department of Health Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. By Industry? (October, 2012). Retrieved from Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Root Cause Analysis of a Sentinel Event. essay editing for essay night wiesel only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Root Cause Analysis of a Sentinel Event.

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ala essay We write papers to make our customers pleased. Choose from expository essay, a wide range of academic writing tasks and get the one you need. No Coursework! Writing a Group Project on Network Security. September 6, 2017. Group projects can be difficult because different individuals have different writing styles and mindsets. Everyone needs to essay wiesel, be on the same page for a group project to gcses, work, but this is night elie wiesel sadly easier said than done. There are some factors involved that you must follow to carry out a competent group project and this final guide on romeo and juliet about death writing a group project on network security highlights all the important factors you need to know.

The most important thing is organization. There should be mutual consent in every decision you take to avoid issues. Essay Elie! Besides being organized, students need to be aware of their responsibilities, be patient, creative and helpful to their fellow members. Let’s have a look at romeo and juliet about than essay, the necessary factors that are required in a group project writing:#8230; 20 Network Security Project Topics. September 6, 2017. Group projects are perhaps some of the most difficult projects that students come across in their university life. Not knowing where to start from night wiesel, or how to bring all the and politics essay answers members together is a common problem. Other than this, there is also conflict on topics as different people usually have different ideas.

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Writing an essay can be quite difficult when you are tasked with crafting a topic that defines the direction of gcses, your essay. So do not feel defeated when such an assignment is assigned to you on the broad subject of gender studies. Due to expository essay wiesel, the fact that we are always here to help you come up with hard-hitting topics with the potential to re-orientate your entire project. Writing on gender studies is definitely fun and the enlightenment you receive on society as a whole after conducting your research can be refreshing to your world view. So once again, we will attempt to simplify your task by providing you with 20 causal argument essay topics on gender status. This will be followed by a written essay sample using one of the outlined topics for inspiration in order to provide you with a template for writing a causal argumentative essay#8230;.

10 Facts for resume by industry Causal Argument Essay on Introduction to Gender Studies. First of all, gender studies is essay elie simply a refined name for women studies due to the fact that most people mistake it solely for studies about women. Therefore, before commencing with the facts we intend to provide for writing a causal essay on gender studies, I believe an introduction to this subject matter is important. Gender studies are the field of discipline devoted to gender identity and gender representation. Disciplines include the study of gender and cover letter for marketing role, sexuality in the field of night wiesel, literature, human development, historical contest and race/ethnicity. This makes it a rather vast yet insightful field.

Now, students who have been charged with writing on gender studies may have some difficulties due to its vastness and this article is written to help. Here, you will find some interesting facts on gcses have gender studies to kick start your essay#8230;. Expository! How to Write a Good Research Project on Cell Biology. Throughout your educational journey, writing a research project will be a constant occurrence in your pursuit of a degree. Woolf Essays! Therefore, mastering the basis of research writing is an endeavor that will serve you well in the foreseeable future. To simplify the difficult task of conducting research and writing accurately, here are some timely tips on writing an excellent research project. The first step to take in defining your research is choosing a topic. Expository Night! The importance of a topic in organizing your research cannot be overestimated. It helps you focus your research, come up with a writing template and allows you to center your findings on this template.

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Essay on World Trade Organization (WTO) Read this essay to learn about World Trade Organization (WTO). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business 2. Essay? Reasons to Join WTO for no coursework International Business 3. Functions 4. Decision Making 5. Organizational Structure 6. Principles of the Multilateral Trading System 7. The Deadlock 8. Ministerial Conferences and Other Details. Essay on expository essay night wiesel, World Trade Organization Contents: Essay on the Introduction to for marketing, World Trade Organization for International Business Essay on the Reasons to Join WTO for International Business Essay on night elie, the Functions of WTO Essay on Decision Making of WTO Essay on the Organizational Structure of the WTO Essay on and juliet love death essay, the Principles of the Multilateral Trading System under the WTO Essay on the Deadlock in WTO Negotiations Essay on elie wiesel, Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO) Essay on GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries. Essay # 1. Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business: The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization that deals with global rules of trade between nations. It provides a framework for conduct of international trade in goods and and politics essay answers, services.

It lays down the rights and obligations of governments in the set of multilateral agreements. In addition to goods and services, it also covers a wide range of issues related to expository essay, international trade, such as protection of intellectual property rights and cover letter for marketing manager, dispute settlement, and prescribes disciplines for governments in formulation of rules, procedures, and practices in these areas. Moreover, it also imposes discipline at the firm level in elie certain areas, such as export pricing at unusually low prices. The basic objective of the rule-based system of international trade under the WTO is to ensure that international markets remain open and their access is not disrupted by the sudden and arbitrary imposition of import restrictions. Under the Uruguay Round, the national governments of all the member countries have negotiated improved access to the markets of the resume member countries so as to enable business enterprises to night elie, convert trade concessions into new business opportunities. The emerging legal systems not only citation in the body of your, confer benefits on manufacturing industries and business enterprises but also create rights in their favour.

The WTO also covers areas of interest to international business firms, such as customs valuation, pre-shipment inspection services, and import licensing procedures, wherein the emphasis has been laid on transparency of the procedures so as to essay elie wiesel, restrain their use as non-tariff barriers. The agreements also stipulate rights of exporters and domestic procedures to initiate actions against dumping of foreign goods. An international business manager needs to develop a thorough understanding of the ap government and politics essay answers new opportunities and challenges of the multilateral trading system under the WTO. The WTO came into expository elie wiesel existence on 1 January 1995 as a successor to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Its genesis goes back to the post-Second- World-War period in woolf essays the late 1940s when economies of most European countries and the US were greatly disrupted following the night war and the great depression of the 1930s. Consequently a United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment was convened at ap government answers, Havana in November 1947. It led to an international agreement called Havana Charter to create an International Trade Organization (ITO), a specialized agency of the United Nations to expository essay elie wiesel, handle the trade side of international economic cooperation. The draft ITO charter was ambitious and extended beyond world trade discipline to rules on employment, commodity agreements, restrictive business practices, international investment, and woolf essays, services. However, the attempt to create the ITO was aborted as the US did not ratify it and other countries found it difficult to expository wiesel, make it operational without US support. The combined package of romeo and juliet about love than death, trade rules and tariff concessions negotiated and agreed by 23 countries out of essay, 50 participating countries became known as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): an effort to salvage from the romeo is more about than essay aborted attempt to create the ITO.

India was also a founder member of essay elie, GATT, a multilateral treaty aimed at trade liberalization. GATT provided a multilateral forum during 1948-94 to discuss the trade problems and resume, reduction of trade barriers. World Trade Organization membership increased from 23 countries in 1947 to 123 countries by elie 1994. GATT remained a provisional agreement and organization throughout these 47 years and facilitated considerably, tariff reduction. During its existence from 1948 to resume by industry, 1994, average tariffs on manufactured goods in essay night elie developed countries declined from about 40 per cent to a mere 4 per cent. It was only citation of your essay, during the Kennedy round of negotiations in 1964-67, that an anti-dumping agreement and a section of development under the GATT were introduced.

The first major attempt to tackle non-tariff barriers was made during the Tokyo round. The eighth round of negotiations known as the Uruguay Round of 1986-94 was the most comprehensive of all and led to the creation of the WTO with a new set up of agreements. Essay # 2. Reasons to Join WTO for International Business: Despite the disciplinary framework for elie wiesel conduct of international trade under the WTO, countries across the world including the and politics developing countries were in a rush to join the pack. The WTO has nearly 153 members, accounting for over 97 per cent of world trade. Presently, 34 governments hold observer status, out of which 31 are actively seeking accession, including large trading nations, such as Russia and Taiwan. The major reasons for a country to join the WTO are : i. Since each country needs to export its goods and expository essay night elie, services to receive foreign exchange for essential imports, such as capital goods, technology, fuel, and sometimes even food, it requires access to foreign markets. But countries require permission for making their goods and services enter foreign countries.

Thus countries need to have bilateral agreements with each other. By joining a multilateral framework like the WTO, the need to have individual bilateral agreements is obviated as the member countries are allowed to and juliet is more about than death essay, export and expository night elie wiesel, import goods and services among themselves. ii. An individual country is unlikely to get a better deal in resume bilateral agreements than what it gets in a multilateral framework. It has been observed that developing countries had to commit to essay night elie, a greater degree to developed countries in bilateral agreements than what is required under the WTO. iii.

A country can learn from the experiences of resume, other countries, being part of the community of essay night elie, countries and answers, influence the decision-making process in the WTO. iv. The WTO provides some protection against subjective actions of essay night elie, other countries by way of its dispute settlement system that works as an in-built mechanism for enforcement of rights and obligations of member countries. v. It would be odd to remain out of WTO framework for conducting international trade that has been in existence for about six decades and accounts for over 97 per cent of world trade. It may even be viewed as suspicious by others. The major function of the WTO is to ensure the flow of international trade as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. This is a multilateral trade organization aimed at evolving a liberalized trade regime under a rule-based system. The basic functions of WTO are: i. To facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation of trade agreements. ii. To provide a forum for further negotiations among member countries on matters covered by the agreements as well as on new issues falling within its mandate. iii.

Settlement of differences and disputes among its member countries. iv. Ap Government And Politics Answers? To carry out periodic reviews of the trade policies of its member countries. v. Wiesel? To assist developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes. vi.

To cooperate with other international organizations. WTO is a member-driven consensus-based organization. Essay? All major decisions in the WTO are made by its members as a whole, either by ministers who meet at least once every two years or by elie their ambassadors who meet regularly in Geneva. A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO and was extremely rare in the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments. Unlike other international organizations, such as the World Bank and the IMF, in WTO, the power is not delegated to the board of directors or the organization’s head.

In view of the complexities involved in multilateral negotiations among 150 member countries with diverse resource capabilities, areas of special interest, and geo-political powers, decision-making through consensus is highly challenging. Developed countries with much greater economic and romeo about than, political strengths often employ pressure tactics over night elie wiesel developing and ap government essay answers, least developed countries in building up a consensus. This has led to considerable networking among the member countries and evolving of several country groups as shown in Exhibit 5.2. When WTO rules impose disciplines on countries’ policies, it is the essay night elie outcome of is more about than essay, negotiations among WTO members. The rules are enforced by the members themselves under agreed procedures that they negotiated, including the possibility of trade sanctions.

The sanctions too are imposed by member countries, and authorized by the membership as a whole. Essay # 5. Expository Night Elie Wiesel? Organizational Structure of the gcses have WTO: The organizational structure of essay elie wiesel, WTO as summarized in Fig. 5.1, consists of the Ministerial Conference, General Council, council for each broad area, and woolf essays, subsidiary bodies. First level – The Ministerial Conference:

The Ministerial Conference is the topmost decision-making body of the WTO, which has to meet at least once every two years. Day-to-day work in between the expository essay night elie Ministerial Conferences is handled by the following three bodies: i. The General Council. ii. The Dispute Settlement Body. iii.

The Trade Policy Review Body. In fact, all these three bodies consist of all WTO members and report to woolf essays, the Ministerial Conference, although they meet under different terms of reference. Third level – Councils for each broad area of trade : There are three more councils, each handling a different broad area of trade, reporting to the General Council. i. The Council for Trade in Goods (Goods Council) ii. The Council for Trade in Services (Services Council) iii.

The Council for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Council) Each of expository essay night, these councils consists of all WTO members and is responsible for the working of the WTO agreements dealing with their respective areas of trade. These three also have subsidiary bodies. Six other bodies, called committees, also report to woolf essays, the General Council, since their scope is smaller. They cover issues, such as trade and development, the environment, regional trading arrangements, and administrative issues. The Singapore Ministerial Conference in December 1996 decided to wiesel, create new working groups to look at investment and competition policy, transparency in government procurement, and resume, trade facilitation. Each of the higher councils has subsidiary bodies that consist of all member countries. It has 11 committees dealing with specific subjects, such as agriculture, market access, subsidies, anti-dumping measures, etc. The subsidiary bodies of the Services Council deal with financial services, domestic services, GATS rules, and specific commitments.

Dispute settlement body: It has two subsidiaries, i.e., the essay night elie dispute settlement ‘panels’ of experts appointed to adjudicate on unresolved disputes, and the Appellate Body that deals with appeals at the General Council level. Formally all of these councils and committees consist of the full membership of the WTO. And Politics Essay? But that does not mean they are the same, or that the distinctions are purely bureaucratic. In practice, the people participating in the various councils and committees are different because different levels of seniority and different areas of expertise are needed. Heads of missions in Geneva (usually ambassadors) normally represent their countries at the General Council level. Some of the committees can be highly specialized and expository night, sometimes governments send expert officials from their countries to participate in these meetings. Even at the level of the Goods, Services, and TRIPS councils, many delegations assign different officials to cover different meetings. All WTO members may participate in all councils, etc., except the Appellate Body, dispute settlement panels, textile monitoring body, and plurilateral committees. The WTO has a permanent Secretariat based in Geneva, with a staff of around 560 and cover role, is headed by the Director-General.

It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role those other international bureaucracies are given. The Secretariat’s main duties are to extend technical support for night elie wiesel the various councils and resume by industry, committees and the Ministerial Conferences, to provide technical assistance for developing countries, to analyse world trade, and to explain WTO affairs to the public and night elie wiesel, media. The Secretariat also provides some forms of have no coursework, legal assistance in the dispute settlement process and advises governments wishing to expository wiesel, become members of the WTO. Essay # 6. Principles of the have Multilateral Trading System under the WTO: For an international business manager, it is difficult to go through the whole of the WTO agreements which are lengthy and complex being legal texts covering a wide range of activities. The agreements deal with a wide range of subjects related to international trade, such as agriculture, textiles and clothing, banking, telecommuni­cations, government purchases, industrial standards and product safety, food sanitation regulations, and intellectual property. However, a manager dealing in international markets needs to have an understanding of the basic principles of WTO which form the foundation of the multilateral trading system. These principles are discussed below: Under the WTO principles, a country cannot discriminate between its trading partners and products and services of its own and essay, foreign origin. Most-favoured nation treatment:

Under WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. Woolf Essays? In case a country grants someone a special favour (such as a lower rate of expository night elie wiesel, customs for one of their products), then it has to do the same for all other WTO members. Woolf Essays? The principle is known as Most-favoured nation (MFN) treatment. This clause is so important that it is the first article of the General Agreement on Tariffs and expository elie wiesel, Trade (GATT), which governs trade in goods. MFN is also a priority in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS, Article 2) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS, Article 4), although in each agreement, the principle is handled slightly differently. Together, these three agreements cover all three main areas of trade handled by the WTO. Some exceptions to the MFN principle are allowed as under: i. Countries can set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the group—discriminating against goods from outside. ii.

Countries can provide developing countries special access to their markets. iii. A country can raise barriers against products that are considered to be traded unfairly from specific countries. iv. In services, countries are allowed, in cover role limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only permit these exceptions under strict conditions. In general, MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partners—whether rich or poor, weak or strong. The WTO agreements stipulate that imported and locally- produced goods should be treated equally—at least after the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents.

This principle of ‘national treatment’ (giving others the essay night elie same treatment as one’s own nationals) is also found in all the three main WTO agreements, i.e., Article 3 of GATT, Article 17 of GATS, and Article 3 of TRIPS. However, the principle is handled slightly differently in each of these agreements. National treatment only applies once a product, service, or an is more love death essay, item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on an import is not a violation of national treatment even if locally-produced products are not charged an equivalent tax. (ii) Gradual Move Towards freer Markets Through Negotiations: Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging international trade.

Such barrier includes customs duties (or tariffs) and measures, such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively. Since GATT’s creation in 1947-48, there have been eight rounds of trade negotiations. At first these focused on lowering tariffs (customs duties) on imported goods. As a result of the negotiations, by elie wiesel the mid- 1990s industrial countries’ tariff rates on industrial goods had fallen steadily to less than 4 per cent. But by the 1980s, the negotiations had expanded to cover non-tariff barriers on goods, and to new areas, such as services and intellectual property. The WTO agreements allow countries to by industry, introduce changes gradually through ‘progressive liberalization’. Developing countries are usually given longer period to fulfill their obligations. (iii) Increased Predictability of International Business Environment : Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier can be as important as lowering one, because the promise gives businesses a clearer view of their future market opportunities. With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created, and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competition—choice and lower prices. The multilateral trading system is an attempt by governments to expository essay elie, make the business environment stable and predictable.

One of the achievements of the Uruguay Round of ap government essay answers, multilateral trade talks was to increase the amount of trade under binding commitments. In the WTO, when countries agree to expository night elie wiesel, open their markets for goods or services, they ‘bind’ their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount to ceiling on customs tariff rates. A country can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. In agriculture, 100 per cent of products now have bound tariffs.

The result of this is a substantially higher degree of market security for traders and investors. The trading system under the WTO attempts to apa in-text in the essay, improve predictability and expository essay night elie wiesel, stability in other ways as well. One way is to discourage the ap government use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports as administering quotas can lead to more red-tape and accusations of unfair play. Another is to make countries’ trade rules as clear and expository, public (transparent) as possible. Many WTO agreements require governments to disclose their policies and practices publicly within the country or by notifying the WTO. The regular surveillance of national trade policies through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism provides a further means of body essay, encouraging transparency both domestically and at the multilateral level. The WTO is sometimes described as a ‘free trade’ institution, but that is not entirely accurate. The system does allow tariffs and, in limited circumstances, other forms of elie, protection.

More accurately, it is apa in-text citation in the body of your, a system of rules dedicated to open, fair, and undistorted competition. The rules on non-discrimination—MFN and national treatment—are designed to secure fair conditions of trade. The WTO has also set rules on dumping and subsidies which adversely affect fair trade. The issues are complex, and the rules try to establish what is fair or unfair, and how governments can respond, in particular by charging additional import duties calculated to compensate for damage caused by unfair trade. Many of the other WTO agreements aim to support fair competition, such as in agriculture, intellectual property, and services. Essay Wiesel? The agreement on government procurement (a ‘plurilateral’ agreement because it is signed by only a few WTO members) extends competition rules to purchases by thousands of no coursework, government entities in many countries. Essay # 7. Deadlock in WTO Negotiations: Despite intensive negotiations, deadlines were missed and negotiations across all areas of the Doha work programme were suspended mainly due to lack of convergence on major issues in agriculture and NAMA in expository night wiesel July 2006. Agriculture remains the most contentious issue in the recent Ministerial Conferences, widening the developed- developing country divide. Major developed countries continue to give high amount of subsidies to their farmers.

Interestingly, developed countries have fulfilled their obligation of reduction in and politics reducible subsidy in essay elie wiesel technical terms despite increasing the absolute amount of subsidy. Besides, the EU and the US continue to give export subsidies as well. Ironically, developed countries are pressurizing developing countries to reduce their tariffs substantially. This poses a threat to the domestic farming sector of developing countries, which has got serious socio-economic and political implications. This makes negotiations in agriculture extremely complex.

Developed countries, on the other hand, are keen on market access for their industrial products. The issues leading to the deadlock of the Doha negotiations are shown in Fig. 5.4. In order to reach a settlement, the complexity of issues between the key players had to be addressed and a compromise reached. The US was looking for improved market access, with an average tariffs cut by around 66 per cent, while the G20 group of larger developed countries led by India and Brazil were looking for a cut of around 54 per cent. The EU had offered a 46 per and juliet is more about than death cent average tariff cut. Expository Elie? The G20 countries were looking for woolf essays reduction in the US farm subsidies, greater than the cap offered by essay the US of around US$22.5 billion, as well as improved market access through lower tariffs. The EU was looking for improved market access to romeo love than death essay, larger developing country markets for industrial products with a maximum tariff of about 15 per cent, besides improved access to services trade. Any breakthrough in the negotiation process required further reduction of agricultural subsidies by the US, greater reduction in tariffs on agricultural goods by the European Union, and expository essay night elie wiesel, greater market access offered by larger developing countries such as India and Brazil to the industrial goods of other countries. Essay # 8. Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO): The highest decision-making body in cover letter manager the WTO is the Ministerial Conference (MC) that has to take place once in two years.

Six ministerial conferences have taken place so far and have generated a lot of night elie wiesel, debate and controversies across the world, as discussed here: (i) Singapore Ministerial Conference : The first MC took place at Singapore during 9-13 December 1996 and reviewed the operations post-WTO. Woolf Essays? Major developed countries brought in proposals to start negotiations in some new areas, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. This evoked a lot of controversy. Significant pressure was built up by the developed countries for all members to expository essay, accept their proposals; this was strongly opposed by developing nations. However, an agreement was finally reached to set up working groups to study the romeo and juliet about love process of the relationship between investment and trade, competition and trade, and transparency in government procurement. These are generally termed as Singapore issues.

The subject of trade facilitation was to be studied in the Council for Trade in expository essay wiesel Goods. Conclusion of Information Technology Agreement was an important decision made during the and politics essay answers Singapore Ministerial Conference based on the proposal brought by developed countries to have an night wiesel, agreement on zero duty on import of information technology goods. The second MC, held at Geneva (Switzerland) during 18-20 May 1998, discussed implementation concerns of developing and least developing countries that led to establishment of a mechanism for evaluation of implementation of ap government and politics answers, individual agreements. The US-sponsored proposals for expository essay night zero duty on electronic commerce were discussed and resume, an agreement was reached to maintain status-quo on the market access conditions for electronic commerce for 18 months. The agreement on status-quo actually meant that there would be zero duty on e-commerce since no country had been imposing duty on this mode of trade. A declaration on global electronic commerce was also adopted. Electronic commerce was defined as the expository essay mode of commerce in which all operations of trade would be conducted through the electronic medium; these operations include placing the order, supplying the have product, and making the payment. They also include sale and transfer of expository essay elie, goods through electronic medium, such as music and cinematographic products, architectural and machine drawings and designs, etc.

However, the sale in which goods are physically transferred to the buyer would not be considered e-commerce. (iii) Seattle Ministerial Conference : The third MC, held in Seattle (US) from 30 November to 3 December 1999, witnessed dramatic changes in negotiations as the developing countries made intense preparations for the conference unlike in romeo is more love death essay the previous MCs wherein issues brought in night elie by the woolf essays developed countries were chiefly discussed. In Seattle too developed countries tried to push forward new issues, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. Essay Wiesel? However, developing countries insisted upon priority attention to their proposals as these were related to the working of the current agreement, before any new issue could be considered. No agreement on the issues could be arrived at, leading to a total collapse of the MC with a lot of confusion and without any decision. The fourth MC held during 9-14 November 2001, at Doha in Qatar further built up the divide between the developed and the developing countries in the WTO.

On the one hand, developed countries were keen on formally pushing forward a new round of multilateral trade negotiations, which would include the issues of investment, competition policy, transparency in government procurement, and trade facilitation. On the other hand, there was stiff resistance from gcses have no coursework, developing countries to initiating a new round as they felt that they were still in the process of comprehending the implications of the last round, i.e., the Uruguay Round, of multilateral trade negotiations. Finally a comprehensive work programme was adopted at the end of Doha MC. Although formally it was not called a new round of negotiations, the work programme had all the attributes of a fresh round of multilateral trade negotiations. Members decided to work out modalities for essay night negotiations on the Singapore issues and then start negotiations on the basis of the modality to be agreed by explicit consensus. It was also agreed upon to make Special and Differential (SD) treatment for developing countries more precise, effective, and operational. The main commitments of the Doha Declaration were: i. To continue the commitment for establishing a fair and market-oriented trading system through fundamental reform of support and protection of agricultural markets, specifically through.

a. Romeo And Juliet Is More Love? Substantial improvements in market access. b. Reductions of all forms of export subsidies, with a view of phasing them out. c. Substantial reductions in trade distorting domestic support. ii. To give developing countries Special and Differential Treatment in negotiations to enable them effectively to take into account their development needs. iii. To ensure negotiations on trade in services aimed at promoting the economic growth of expository wiesel, all trading partners and the development of developing and least developed countries. iv.

To reduce or eliminate tariffs and letter role, non-tariff barriers in essay night wiesel non-agricultural markets, in resume by industry particular on products of essay elie, export interest to developing countries. v. Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is a ‘single undertaking’ that means nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. The fifth MC was held in apa in-text citation in the body of your Cancun (Mexico) during 10-14 September 2003 under heightened strain between the major developed and essay night, developing countries. Developing countries believed that heavy subsidies on production and exports of agriculture in cover for marketing manager developed countries had been grievously harming their agriculture which is expository essay wiesel, means of livelihood of their major population unlike in developed countries. There was hardly any significant action perceived on the part of the developed countries in the areas of romeo is more essay, implementation of issues and Special and Differential Treatment. Expository Night Elie Wiesel? On the other hand, developed countries insisted upon starting the no coursework negotiations on the Singapore issues. Under this atmosphere of complete apprehension, anger, and mistrust, no agreement could be reached and the MC terminated without any comprehensive declaration. (vi) The Hong Kong Ministerial Conference : The sixth MC took place in night elie wiesel Hong Kong during 13-18 December 2005. It called for conclusions in 2006 of negotiations launched at Doha in 2001 and establishment of targets and for marketing role, time frames in specific areas.

The key outcomes of the Hong Kong Ministerial Conference included: i. Expository Essay Night Wiesel? Amendment to TRIPS agreement reaffirmed to woolf essays, address public health concerns of developing countries. ii. Duty free, quota free market access for all LDC products by all developed countries. iii. Resolved complete Doha work programme and essay night, finalized negotiations in 2006. iv. Elimination of export subsidies in gcses have no coursework cotton by developed countries in 2006; reduction of trade distorting domestic subsidies more ambitiously and over a shorter period. v. Elimination of export subsidies in agriculture by 2013 with substantial part in essay night elie wiesel the first half of the implementation period. Developing countries, such as India will continue to have right to provide marketing and transport subsidies on agricultural exports for five years after the end date for resume elimination of all forms of export subsidies. vi.

The agreement that the essay wiesel three heaviest subsidizers, i.e., the European Union, the US, and Japan, were to attract the highest cut in their trade distortion domestic support. Developing countries like India with no Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) will be exempt from any cut on de minimus (entitlement to provide subsidies annually on product-specific as well as non-product specific basis each up to 10 per cent of the agricultural production value) as well as on overall levels of domestic trade distortion support (consists of the AMS, the Blue Box, and de minimus). vii. Establishment of modalities in agriculture and romeo about love death, Non-Agriculture Market Access (NAMA). viii. Essay Night Elie Wiesel? The agreement that developing countries were to gcses, have flexibility to self-designate appropriate number of expository essay night elie, tariff lines as special products. In order to address situations of manager, surge in imports and fall in international prices, both import quantity and price triggers have been agreed under the Special Safeguard Mechanism for developing countries. ix.

The agreement that in night elie NAMA and Special and Differential Treatment (SDT), elements such as flexibility and letter, less-than-fall reciprocity in reduction commit­ments for developing countries reassured. x. No sub-categorization of developing countries when addressing concerns of small, vulnerable economies. Subsequently, at the General Council meeting held at essay night elie, Geneva on apa in-text essay, 31 July 2006, an agreement was reached on expository essay elie wiesel, the framework in order to woolf essays, conduct the negotiations. Preliminary agreements were reached on broad approaches, especially in the areas of agriculture and elie, industrial tariffs. It was decided to drop the three Singapore issues on investment, competition policy, and apa in-text in the body of your, government procurement whereas negotiations on trade facilitation were to follow. Essay # 9. GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries: Over the years, the divide between the developed and developing countries in the WTO has widened, leading to deadlocks in the process of expository night wiesel, multilateral negotiations. It has also triggered widespread demonstrations (Fig.

5.5) across the world due to conflicting interests of member countries. Although developing countries form a much bigger group numerically under the WTO, decision making is significantly influenced by the developed countries. The major issues of concern from the perspective of developing countries are summarized here: i. The basic objective of the WTO framework is to liberalize trade in goods and services and protection of resume, intellectual property. Countries with supply capacity directly benefit from expository night, expansion of exports whereas countries with intellectual property benefit from monopoly privileges, including high financial returns to owners of IPRs. As most developing countries neither have good supply base for goods and services nor much of IPRs, their direct gains from the WTO system is citation in the of your, much lower compared to developed countries. ii. Reciprocity is the basis for liberalization under the WTO system. Countries get more if they are able to give more; conversely, they also get less if they give less.

Since member countries have vastly diverse levels of development, there is an in-built bias in the system for increasing disparity among countries. Although provisions such as differential and more favourable treatment have been incorporated in the WTO framework, these have several limitations and have hardly worked satisfactorily. iii. Retaliation is the ultimate weapon for enforcement of rights of expository essay wiesel, member countries. Since developing countries are weak partners and retaliation by them against any major developed country has both economic and political costs, they are at apa in-text citation in the, a considerably disadvantageous position in their capacity to enforce rights and obligations. iv. The basic principles of the multilateral framework, such as national treatment, i.e., non-discrimination between imported and domestic goods, works against essay the process of development by discouraging domestic production by developing countries.

v. Answers? Developed countries significantly influence the night decision-making process as they possess enormous resources to woolf essays, make elaborate preparations for the negotiating process. As their views are put forth effectively and strongly, the issues of their interest take centre stage leading to expository essay wiesel, frustration among developing countries. vi Substantial negotiations are carried out in small groups where developing countries are not present. Resume By Industry? Countries who have not participated are expected to expository night, agree when the results are brought forth in larger groups. It is woolf essays, difficult to stop decision-making at this stage as any such move by essay developing countries would mark them as obstructionists and love essay, have political repercussions. vii. Developed countries often take advantage of escape routes and loopholes in elie the agreements. For instance, the Agreement on gcses have, Textiles was back-loaded and left the expository choice of products to the importing countries. As developed countries were importers and had been imposing restraints, they chose only such products for liberalization that were not under import restraints without significantly liberalizing their textile imports until the end of 2004 when the agreement was automatically abolished.

Similarly developed countries could fulfill their obligation of reduction of cover for marketing role, subsidies in agriculture despite actually increasing considerably the absolute quantum of subsidy. viii. Developing countries view the WTO as an institutional framework to extract concessions from them, obstructing their goals of development and expository night elie, self-reliance. Woolf Essays? Despite vast differences among the interests of member countries, the WTO remains the only international organization that provides a multilateral framework for international trade. Besides trade in goods, it covers a number of expository essay night, issues related to international trade, such as services, intellectual property rights, anti-dumping, safeguards, non-tariff barriers, dispute settlement, etc., making its approach highly comprehensive.

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essays on buddah Buddhism arose in northern India in the 6th century BCE. The historical founder of Buddhism, Siddharta Gautama (c.560-480 BCE) was born in essay elie wiesel a village called Lumbini into a warrior tribe called the Sakyas (from where he derived the title Sakyamuni, meaning 'Sage of the Sakyas'). Citation In The Of Your! According to tradition Gautama's father, Suddhodana was the king of a small principality based on the town of Kapilavastu. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after Gautama's birth. Following the death of Maya, Suddhodana married Maya's sister, Prajapati, by whom Gautama was brought up in great luxury and sheltered from the harshness of the outside world. At sixteen the prince married Yasodhara. Yasodhara bore him a son whom he called Rahula (meaning chain or fetter), a name that indicated Gautama's sense of dissatisfaction with his life of luxury.

His apparent sense of dissatisfaction turned to disillusion when he saw three things from the window of his palace, each of expository night elie which represented different forms human suffering: a decrepit old man, a diseased man, and apa in-text in the a corpse. So traumatised was Siddharta by expository night wiesel, his new found awareness of the transience of pleasure and the universality of suffering, that he decided to embark on a life dedicated to true knowledge. Inspired by woolf essays, the example of a mendicant monk, Siddharta abandoned his family and life as a prince, cut off his hair and adopted the night, lifestyle of a wanderer. Siddharta began his spiritual quest under the guidance of two teachers who showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of true knowledge or peace, and the practice of deep meditation was abandoned in favour of a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions. But again, after five or six years, of self-mortification, Siddharta felt he had failed to achieve true insight and rejected such practices as dangerous and ap government and politics useless.

Resolved to continue his quest, Siddharta made his way to a deer park at essay night elie, Isipatana, near present day Benares. Here he sat beneath a tree meditating on death and in the of your essay rebirth. It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the title 'Buddha' (meaning 'awakened one'). This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. Expository Elie Wiesel! In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences. In the and juliet about love, second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and understood the essay night wiesel, law that governs the cycle of birth and death. In the third he identified the four noble truths: the universality of suffering, the cause of suffering through selfish desire, the solution to woolf essays, suffering and the way to expository essay elie wiesel, overcome suffering. This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom (right views, right intention) ethics (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), which ultimately lead to liberation from the source of suffering. Although initially hesitant to share his insight on the grounds that humanity might not be ready for such a teaching, the Buddha decided to communicate his discovery to those willing to listen.

His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the ascetic. To these he preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares, outlining to letter for marketing manager, them the essay night, Four Noble Truths. Out of this small group the community of monks (or sangha) grew to about sixty in size and included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and his son, Rahula. Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and cousin to accept women into the sangha. The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the Ganges, teaching and receiving visitors. At the age of resume 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to succeed him as leader of the Sangha. Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and rule as their sole guides.

Councils and Early Schisms in the Community. Following the Buddha's death, his teachings were gathered together at the first Buddhist council, which is said to have taken place at Rajagrha shortly after the Buddha's Final Nirvana. A second council, which is said to have taken place a century after the Buddha's death, took place at Vaisali. Night Wiesel! The purpose of apa in-text body essay this council was to consider allegations that certain monks at elie wiesel, Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the rules of conduct of the Vinaya. The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into two traditions: the Sthaviravadins ('Elders') and the Mahasanghikas ('the great Sangha'). The difference between the letter manager, two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the arhant. Whereas the Mahasanghikas were more open to the laity practising Buddhism and tended to believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an arhant, the expository elie wiesel, Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to cover letter for marketing role, arahantship and, therefore, nirvana.

Sometime in the 3rd century B.C.E. Expository Wiesel! a new group called the Sarvastivadins emerged out of the Sthaviravadins. The name Sarvastivadin is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti (everything exists). The Sarvastivadins taught that the dharmas, the most basic elements of existence, exist in the past, present and future which are simply modes of being. And Politics Essay! The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the Maurya dynasty, to call the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (c. 250 BCE) which decided against the teachings of the expository essay night elie, Sarvastivadins. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to north India and establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years. Another group that emerged in the 3rd century B.C.E. were the than essay, Pudgalavadins, who derive their name from the word pudgala, meaning 'person'. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of a self and, therefore, contradicted the expository elie wiesel, basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self).

Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the doctrines of apa in-text in the body essay either the essay elie, Sarvastivadins or the gcses have no coursework, Pudgalavadins came to be called Vibhajyadins ('Distinctionists'). This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and most important were the Theravadins of Ceylon. The sacred text for the Theravadins of Ceylon and for those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka ('Three Baskets'). These three baskets consist of the Vinaya Pitaka (rules for monks and nuns), the Sutta Pitaka (the discourses given by the Buddha) and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine). Accompanying the essay night elie wiesel, Tripitaka was a large body of woolf essays commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of expository essay night wiesel particular sutras. Early Mahayana Buddhism. At about the beginning of the common era there appeared texts which did not belong to the Tripitaka of the early schools (in so far as the Tripitaka existed at woolf essays, this time). The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Mahayana ('Great Vehicle') in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana ('Lesser Vehicle'). Expository! In India Mahayana Buddhism developed through a number of stages.

Initially it produced a number of texts that engaged with issues such as the nature of Buddhahood or the philosophy of emptiness. Apa In-text Citation In The Body Of Your Essay! Later identifiable schools such as Madhyamaka and Yogacara emerged. Then, between the fifth and seventh centuries Classical Mahayana Buddhism developed as an attempt to systematise the various schools and teachings within the Mahayana. Finally, a trend which came to be known as the Vajrayana emerged based on new texts known as Tantras, which were more magical and ritualistic than other strands of Buddhism. Buddhism was not to wiesel, survive in North India much beyond the 13th and and politics 14th centuries. In the south it remained for a few more centuries but had largely disappeared by expository wiesel, the end of the 18th century. Citation In The Body Of Your! It was in expository essay elie wiesel Southeast and Northern Asia that Buddhism was to establish itself as the dominant tradition. The Buddhism of south-east Asia is largely Theraravadin.

When Buddhism came to Southeast Asia is unknown. Certainly, there was an established presence by the early centuries of the about death essay, common era. Archaeological and expository night inscriptional evidence indicates the presence of southern Buddhism in Central Burma by the fifth century C.E. At about the same time (and quite possibly earlier) the Mon people of Southern Burma and Northern and Central Thailand had adopted Pali Buddhism. The Buddhism of the Mon was in resume by industry turn transplanted into the Khmer empire, and supplanted the already present Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism. Essay! From both the Mon and the Khmer Southern Buddhism was adopted by the Tai peoples, whose principalities emerged in resume regions now occupied by parts of modern day Thailand, Burma and Laos. Northern Buddhism came to be dominant in Central Asia (Tibet) and East Asia (China, Korea and Japan). Expository Essay Night Elie Wiesel! It was through China that Buddhism was transmitted into Northern and Central Asia. Following its entry into China in the 1st century of the Common Era, it went on to develop in citation in the body essay four stages.

Up to the 4th century Buddhism gradually spread into expository essay elie wiesel China from Central Asia as Mahayana sutras were translated into Chinese and Indian schools established themselves. During this period Buddhism remained largely a fringe religion. The second stage came about as a result of the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 CE, the invasion of northern China in c. 320 CE and the flight of the ap government and politics essay answers, royal court to expository night wiesel, the south. In the by industry, northern foreign occupied part of the essay night elie wiesel, country Buddhism's status as a foreign religion ceased to be problematic; in the south Buddhism received support from the educated classes with the consequence that distinctively Chinese forms of Buddhism began to emerge. The third period is represented by and juliet is more about essay, the reunion of the country under the Sui and T'ang dynasties. Unification allowed for new transmissions of Buddhism into the country while also fostering the cultivation of indigenous forms of night Chinese Buddhism such as T'ien T'ai, Hua-Yen, Ch'an and Ching-Tu.

The fourth stage began with the persecution of Buddhism in the 9th century. This persecution was so severe that it destroyed the T'ien T'ai and the Hua-yen schools. Ap Government And Politics Answers! Later dynasties gave periodic support to various strands of Buddhism. Disaster struck, however, in the 19th century with the elie, T'ai-p'ing rebellion of 1850-1864 which viciously persecuted all forms of Buddhism it encountered. Gcses No Coursework! Buddhism enjoyed a brief reprieve under the Nationalist regime, but with the ascendancy of communism in 1949 many monasteries were closed down and Buddhist clergy were forced to return to lay status. Buddhism arrived in Korea from China towards the end of the expository elie wiesel, 4th century. It was not until the 6th century that Buddhism was recognised as an official religion in Korea. This official religion paved the ap government, way for Korean monks to visit China in the 6th and 7th centuries and to essay night elie wiesel, introduce into Korea various major schools of Chinese Buddhism. It was during the Koryo period (935-1392) that Buddhism enjoyed its greatest period of expansion. However, with the romeo is more love than death essay, ascendancy of the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Confucianism received official favour and Buddhism came over time to be severely suppressed. Such was the degree of expository elie suppression that by the 19th century Son (Ch'an) Buddhism remained the only dominant school in the Sangha.

Following Japanese control in the 20th century Korean Buddhism underwent a renewal, but this was at the expense of accepting the importation of Japanese styles of Buddhism. The division of the country into North and South had a major impact on the Sangha. The land reforms in the North have virtually brought to an end the presence of Buddhism there. Romeo About Death! In the South, however, Buddhism has received official support and Buddhism is enjoying a revived role in the life of the country. Buddhism was introduced into Japan from Korea in the 6th century in expository night elie wiesel the form of gifts sent by Korean kings to the Japanese imperial court.

During the 7th century Buddhism was integrated into romeo death the state apparatus through the support of a series of Buddhist emperors. The close relationship between the night wiesel, court and Buddhism has meant that periods of Buddhist history are identified by the location of the capital city at a particular period of the country's history. Between 710 and 794 the resume, capital was located at essay night elie, Nara. The six traditions of Buddhism introduced from Korea and China and supported by the imperial court during this period are often referred to as Nara Buddhism. With the move of the capital to Heian (modern day Kyoto) two new forms of Buddhism emerged, Shingon and Tendai, which were founded by Japanese monks who had visited China. The Kamakura period (1192-1338) saw the rise of a distinctively Japanese form of Buddhism as a number of popular movements arose. The earliest of these new schools are associated with Pure Land (Jodo) Buddhism and its veneration of Buddha Amida. Another important sect was founded by Nichiren (122-1282) who identified true Buddhism with the citation in the of your essay, Sakyamuni Buddha of the Lotus Sutra. The medieval expansion of Buddhism was curtailed in the 14th - 16th centuries by essay night elie, the outbreak of national unrest and the subsequent destruction of a number of major centres of Buddhism.

Buddhism suffered further as a consequence of the establishment of military rule in the 17th century and the concomitant complete cultural isolation imposed on Japan by its military rulers. The situation changed with the emergence of the and politics essay answers, Meiji dynasty in essay night elie 1867, the acceptance of Shinto as the official state religion and brief persecution of Buddhism. In the 20th century Buddhism has become open to the rest of the world. This has enabled Buddhist missionaries to travel abroad but at the same time has exposed Japan to letter manager, the mixed blessings of westernisation. Buddhism entered Tibet surprisingly late. Tibetan historians conventionally understand Buddhism to have entered Tibet in two waves: the first wave, which was sponsored by Tibetan monarchs, took place between the elie, 7th and essay 9th centuries C.E., and expository essay night elie the second wave occurred in the 10th century as a result of Tibetans travelling to body essay, India for religious education. It was during this later period that new texts were transplanted into Tibet and new orders were established. These orders are not based on distinct doctrines but derive from lineages associated with early Buddhist masters (known as lamas). Buddhism in the West. In the 20th century Buddhism has spread well beyond its Asian origins and has become a global religion.

An important early channel for the propagation of Buddhism was the World Parliament of expository essay Religions, which was held in Chicago in 1893. Among those attending was a Japanese Rinzai Zen master whose disciples established a number of Zen groups on the West coast of America. Buddhism was further disseminated through the answers, writings of Buddhist scholars such as D.T. Suzuki in the United States and Christmas Humphries and Edward Conze in the United Kingdom. In the 1950s and 1960s the essay night, study of Buddhism became an integral part of higher education through the establishment of Religious Studies or Asian Studies departments.

The establishment of Buddhist temples and centres for European and American converts or Asian immigrants has further strengthened the presence of Buddhism in the West.