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2014 Calibre Prize: The evolution of an essay. After a long break from blogging as I finished my PhD and novel, I am happy to return with some good news: I won the 2014 Calibre Prize for argumentative essay and answers, an Outstanding Essay. I’m very grateful for the generous support of Australian Book Review and Colin Galvin SC. There are so few opportunities to essay publish writing of this kind, so I’m delighted that my lengthy, Japan-focused essay will reach a wide audience, without the usual editorial constraints. This important issue has remained buried for too long. ‘Unearthing the Past’ traces a springtime walk I took through suburban Tokyo in 2013, on the trail of some mysterious bones discovered in 1989. I met lawyers and activists involved in the struggle to identify the essay, remains and expose the horrors of Japan’s wartime past. I was drawn to the topic because of the shocking nature of the crimes, and the fact that very few people know about it today. Despite the efforts of activists to essay recognise the victims, not much has changed. Argumentative Questions! The controversy surrounding the bones reflects the larger, ongoing debate about Japan’s contested war memories.
The essay features in the April 2014 edition of Australian Book Review, in print on newsstands and via digital subscription ($6 for one issue, or $40 annually). White! (Last year’s winning essay can be read for free online, but I don’t think mine will be similarly available. I’ve included a 700-word extract below.) I wrote ‘Unearthing the Past’ for my Doctor of Creative Arts degree at the University of Technology, Sydney. Argumentative Essay! The themes of memory, silence and testimony tie in neatly with my novel, After Darkness . I’d always wanted to write a long, narrative-driven, creative non-fiction piece, and paper took the opportunity to do so with my doctorate. It was by far the most difficult single chapter of my thesis to write. The writing alone took seven weeks full-time (not including the argumentative essay and answers, research that preceded it, nor the time spent interviewing key people), and involved late nights and even a few tears. I transcribed eight hours worth of essay white, interviews and spent $1000 on questions and answers interpreters. To get my head around all the historical developments, I wrote a six-page timeline, starting with the essay oedipus, 1925 Geneva Convention banning the use of essay, biological warfare and ending with the 2012 death of former Army Medical College nurse Toyo Ishii. Essay E.b.! My essay is by no means perfect or unputdownable (hey, it’s more than 7000 words long), but I hope it goes a small way towards redressing the silence that has surrounded this issue. My biggest thanks go to the activists who have spent years campaigning and raising awareness about this dark chapter of Japan’s past: Yasushi Torii, Shigeo Nasu, Kazuyuki Kawamura and Norio Minami (see below). (If you can read Japanese, head to the website for the Association Demanding Investigation Into the argumentative questions and answers, Human Remains). And congratulations to the five other shortlisted essayists, Ruth Balint, Martin Edmond, Rebecca Giggs, Ann-Marie Priest and exemplification Stephen Wright – I look forward to reading their submissions in upcoming issues of Australian Book Review. On 7 July 1989 the air was thick with heat in the Toyama district of Tokyo.
Tsuyu, the rainy season, had just ended, leaving the atmosphere dense. Essay And Answers! At the former government health building location, a large pit was being dug for the new National Hygiene and Disease Prevention Research Centre. The workers buzzed around the using a research paper, site, their foreheads glistening in argumentative questions the sun. The mechanical digger plunged deep into the earth, scraping against rock as it brought up a mound of dirt. Something pale shone through the soil. At first, it looked like pieces of ceramic. On closer inspection, the workers realised it was human bones.
Twenty-five years later, their identities are still unknown. In a city famed for exemplification and description, skyscrapers and neon lights, Toyama is a quiet pocket in an urban jungle. Situated in the heart of Tokyo, only essay and answers thirty minutes by foot from the world’s busiest train station, Shinjuku, it is a research, bordered by busy Meiji Road at one end and the prestigious Waseda University at the other. In between lies residential housing, several schools, a public library, a Buddhist temple, the National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, and acres of argumentative questions and answers, leafy parkland. Hundreds of years ago, a lavish garden built by shippensburg, a feudal lord occupied the argumentative and answers, area. Now, at least a dozen public housing monoliths crowd the edges of the park.
Like most of metropolitan Japan, Toyama is full of contradictions. It is a place where the indigent and the upper middle class live side by side. In this suburb, an ancient Shinto shrine dedicated to gods of war is a short walk from the Women’s Active Museum on on quasars War and Peace, committed to and answers exposing wartime violence and enabling justice for on quasars, victims. My first visit to Toyama was on 1 March 2013. The grass was tawny and the ground was thick with dry leaves, but I occasionally spied tiny green buds on the branches of trees. Mothers pushed prams through the park and and answers up gently sloping alleys crowded with dwellings. Difference Of Formal And Informal Essays! Now and argumentative essay questions and answers then, a door creaked or the murmur of a television sounded from within. Essay Oedipus Funny! The idyllic snapshot of suburban life is worlds apart from argumentative essay and answers, Toyama’s former identity as a hub of military operations during the Asia–Pacific War.
Seventy years ago, the neighbourhood was home to a mounted regiment, the Toyama Military Academy and the Tokyo Army Medical College. The latter was a collection of buildings where the Imperial Army’s medical elite, academics, and a research politicians gathered to share research and hold secret talks about Japan’s expansion into East Asia. The area’s unusual past might have stayed relatively obscure but for questions, the accidental unearthing of the bones in 1989. News of the discovery of at essay least thirty-five human skulls prompted speculation. Some wondered if they were the victims of unsolved murders, while others thought they were the casualties of wartime raids or the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake. Kanagawa University history professor Keiichi Tsuneishi was one of the first to suggest ties to Japan’s covert biological warfare program during World War II. Tsuneishi, whose earliest work on the subject was published in 1981, knew of a special department known as the essay questions, Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory located within the Army Medical College. He was quick to draw links to Unit 731, the difference and informal, secret unit of the Army Medical College that developed biological weapons and experimented on living humans, starting in 1932 in the Japanese colony of Manchuria, and later in Guangzhou, Beijing, and Singapore. The unit conducted tests on bubonic plague, anthrax, cholera, typhus, smallpox, botulism, and questions poison gas. Infected victims were vivisected to observe the progress of disease – sometimes without anaesthetic. Test subjects were referred to as maruta, or ‘logs’, originally as a joke because the Unit 731 compound was disguised as a lumber mill, then the term persisted.
About three thousand people were directly killed in the experiments at the Unit 731 compound alone. Japanese forces also deposited wheat, rice, and cotton riddled with disease-infected fleas near communities, and released typhoid and cholera into village wells. The total death toll resulting from the spread of disease is estimated to difference of formal essays be between 250,000 and 300,000. Essay And Answers! As the daughter of a Japanese immigrant, I have long been drawn to stories about Japan. In some ways, unravelling the mystery of the bones is my attempt to decipher a culture that is at once both familiar and unknown to me.
Although I have lived in essay oedipus Japan several times since my childhood, I have always remained an argumentative questions outsider. Confronting the funny, silences of Japan is a way of piecing together my cultural heritage. And Answers! So I went to Japan to meet the unofficial guardians of the bones, concerned citizens who have no direct connection to the remains, but who have taken it upon themselves to see that justice is served …
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On the Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and famed work concerning the essay and answers, development of the Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. Difference Of Formal And Informal! It is history’s main source of information on many central issues in argumentative Roman politics and intellectual history. It is divided, according to Dio, into the familiar divisions of Roman history that remain today. The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the senate and the population at difference essays large, then the takeover of Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day. Hence, the order of the work is clear, and argumentative essay questions remains the standard ordering of Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the tendency to merely recite events.
He appears at the opposite of Herodotus in essay this respect. Dry facts and dates, while meticulously put together, make for very tedious reading. Nevertheless, one has the worst of both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls “rhetorical commonplaces” (“Introduction” xiv), where the really useful details of warfare are left out in order that the typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on On the Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for argumentative you for only $12.90/page. What needs to be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. He is from a senatorial family from Greece, and he himself held that office. Essay Oedipus! He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Hence, there are two biases from argumentative questions his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the Senate. A Research Paper! Octavian, soon to be Augustus, became the essay and answers, adopted son of the wildly popular Julius Caesar. In the literature, he is difference and informal, referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus. This can be confusing to the reader.
He very quickly sought to essay and answers take action to claim the throne. His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the population because he did not take action against Julius’ assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the young Augustus and began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to essay e.b. buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the empire over the long term. He approached the army clumsily, and essay apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Exemplification Essay! Most soon tool Caesar’s side against Antony. Brutus, the and answers, murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. Funny! He did not trust Antony, and questions and answers hence, Antony’s pleas to a research him went unheeded. Ultimately, it was the speech of the famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against argumentative and answers Antony (46: ch.
5). Essay! Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters. Antony’s plan was to make certain the most powerful African provinces were under his control. Essay! Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by the Senate. The Senate will be shown to be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next.
This becomes one of Dio’s most harsh condemnations of his own class. The wording of Dio’s attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. Of Formal And Informal! He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and argumentative essay questions began to destroy elements of the population that might be hostile to essay them. Questions And Answers! They sought to appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity. Essay E.b.! The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the chief leader of the argumentative essay, murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the senatorial class so as to smooth their way to power. Dio mentions the military leader Sulla and essay oedipus funny his own decimation of this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Roman politics can be reduced to battles between the argumentative essay questions, senatorial class and the emperor, supported by the army.
Dio does not attempt to downplay the violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence. It is possible that this was an afterthought on Dio’s part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at essay the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is argumentative essay, attempting to save his reputation–or so it seems. Shippensburg Application Essay! Antony was to gain power by any means necessary, this Dio makes clear. So while Octavian has the right of argumentative questions and answers succession as being Julius’ adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an Gaulish army that he thought might win him the Roman power. Nevertheless the destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and oedipus funny Antony in particular, could control the body in the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. Essay Questions! This is always the upshot of the attacks on the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperor’s (and the army’s) plans.
Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army. Oedipus Funny! This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the army with lands from conquered peoples is essay questions, central to effective political rule in Rome. Dio is honest about the implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by this method to gain the trust of the frightened populous. Antony and Caesar went out on campaign, as emperors should do, while the white, consul Lepidus, the third in the triumvirate, remained in the city. This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in the short run as administering the long neglected city of Rome. The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in argumentative essay questions popularity.
Brutus of Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an alliance with the Senate (47: 163). And Description Essay! After the campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to argumentative essay and answers placate their men by grants of white land. Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to be dispatched. Brutus and Sextus of Sicily, sensing the divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to take power. This will be dealt with later. Argumentative Essay Questions And Answers! Socially, Dio is a Senator, that means that one might expect him to support the essay, political claims of his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy.
In Dio’s case that is not true: he holds to the dignity of the argumentative questions and answers, emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to Cicero is application essay, legendary, and argumentative essay and answers yet, Cicero is the essay, hero of the Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is going against his class much of the time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to argumentative questions and answers the senate is also of Dio’s devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman. As for his writing style, it is rather dry and descriptive, but his meaning is essay e.b. white, clear. In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. The army is shown as basically fickle, demanding money and land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the bribes come through on time. In Augustus’ case, the essay questions, army was a problem in the early years of the diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the empire itself.
The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to follow. Antony, at first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rival’s behavior at essay Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to power, and the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony. There was substantial moves to create pease between the two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Argumentative Questions! Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the army, the “bad guy” in Dio’s narrative, and in order to do this there must be an eviction of many Italians to make way for the land allotments for 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to attempt to turn the population from essay on quasars Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in questions and answers Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in Sextus, a rival who had dominated the exemplification and description, wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements.
When Octavian was master of the west, it was no just Antony and argumentative questions Octavian, the essay, Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to and answers be the war leader par excellence. Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by the Roman population. Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of Sicily in order to control Rome thourgh the manipulation of on quasars grain supplies coming from Egypt. In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to bypass Sicily. At the argumentative essay questions and answers, same time Antony was losing against the Parthians and their sometime enemy the Armenians (49: 19). And Description! While this was happening, Octavian took over the government of essay questions Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to the Roman state, incuding the all-powerful city of Rome itself. Antony began creating an “eastern empire” for himself–and is oedipus funny, now married to Cleopatra–still, it should be noted, while married to Octavian’s sister, something that caused some problems with the always self-righteous Senate. Antony even went so far as to create his own “anti-senate” in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to the actual Roman Senate in argumentative essay questions and answers the city itself. Antony’s followers, knowing of the violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in essay on quasars two.
It could not have been a popular move to create an anti-empire in argumentative the east with a “foreign” queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dio’s writing style emerges from dry description, and, seemingly animated by shippensburg application essay, the idea of a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. This is a change for the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the argumentative questions and answers, battle of Acitum led to an victory for essays Octavian’s forces, since the fleet of argumentative questions Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and their attempt to move outward was defeated by Octavian. Antony’s forces on of formal essays land, seeing the defeat of their boss’ naval forces, defected to argumentative essay questions and answers that of Augustus, and Actium was considered the essay white, turning point in Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the last gasp of the essay, republic, and saw, oddly enough, an alliance of Octavian with the Roman senate.
Maybe not so odd, since the a research paper, Roman population as a whole was outraged by the creation of an argumentative questions and answers, anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to a Grecian queen, Cleopatra. It was only when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only was the using, marriage alliance that roused them to action. Argumentative! Dio here has no mercy on his fellow senators. Octavian as a military leader is laid out in some detail in book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at exemplification his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off. The naval forces of Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of Antony’s larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about their dedication.
The point now was to take the power given to him, and use it wisely. Few thought the republic was worth saving, and, given the divisions in argumentative and answers the empire, it was time to heal, and to create a unified state where the wealthy would have a check placed on their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and 2). And Informal Essays! Octavian feigned a lack of interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to convince him of argumentative and answers his necessity to the city. He took power at their suggestion and began to appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in the east–Egypt and Syria–and the west, in Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the conspiracy against Augustus and funny how this was used as an excuse to and answers begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the former split in the empire. Essay Oedipus Funny! Unfortunately, the reader is forced to argumentative questions and answers agree with Dio’s assessment, as Roman politics is on quasars, never a smooth game, Dio is essay and answers, convincing and eloquent here. Augustus took over all foreign and domestic roles as Emperor, and created what one might call today a “new order. Shippensburg Essay! ” He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senate’s assistance, but ultimately at their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is shown taking more and more power, while all the essay questions and answers, time he posed as a passive participant. Of Formal! His wild popularity with the people made it possible for him to take full power while retaining the trappings of republicanism, and it is in their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Octavian’s rule.
It is in this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by questions and answers, the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and that in the case of such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in fact, restore to the senate the weaker provinces, on oedipus funny the ground that they were peaceful and essay questions free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and application essay either had enemies on their borders or were able on essay questions and answers their own account to begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this was that the and informal, senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the and answers, hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for of formal and informal essays battle, while he alone had arms and argumentative essay questions and answers maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. This was a central reform. He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of politics. The Senate was put in its place.
It was clearly a second rate entity under the Augustinian monarchy. Being an intelligent statesman, he treated the senate with decorum, and essay oedipus it was almost like the senate was not losing power at all. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavian’s order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for their support of the new state but for their competence. Client kingships were permitted to continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the essay and answers, power of both people and senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the essay e.b. white, power at the same time.
The name of monarchy, to argumentative essay questions and answers be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the final authority for the government devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The offices established by the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of oedipus censor; but the entire direction and administration is questions and answers, absolutely in accordance with the wishes of the one in power at the time. And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by virtue of the laws and not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the on quasars, offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the essay and answers, dictatorship. He sought to reform the morals of the elite, something important for the maintenance of social stability. He sought to limit divorces and to reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and white literature. Essay Questions! In book 53, it is clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian.
He explains that the celebrations of his victory and his coming to power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories. At the same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latter’s suicide was considered a loss of exemplification minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes “In this way the government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for and answers the people to be saved under a republic. ” What is the most interesting is Augustus’ address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of sorts that would typify the and description, sort of state that was slowly coming into being. He first, without surprise speaks of his army reforms, making a stronger and more rationalized force to deal with the frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of her life. Since Dio well knows of argumentative and answers these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of a sort.
The army, by on quasars, being mentioned first in argumentative questions and answers his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavian’s mind, since the loyalties of the army are necessary for oedipus funny any kind of social reform to take place, in essay and answers fact for any monarch to successfully rule Rome. Then, he speaks of mercy, the desire to using paper unify the empire and spare the essay and answers, lives of his former enemies. The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is using a research, significant, since army reform speaks of violence and argumentative essay questions and answers defense, while mercy, of the opposite. The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together. Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to difference and informal essays be unified, and again made the heart of the empire.
This makes sense since the real reason Antony was hated was is desire to create a new Rome in essay Alexandria. Hence, he is appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. Exemplification And Description Essay! He speaks of argumentative essay giving up his own office, of giving power back to the people, with the notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to him in trust. He did not want power, so he says, and is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to the senate, while he alone takes the strife-filled ones. The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the oedipus funny, Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Dio. He speaks of himself as a lover of peace, and goes through great pains to connect himself to Julius Caesar, the bringer of peace and plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from essay questions foreign conquest, distributed to using a research the Roman population). The fact that the civil war is over means the society can be unified again, bringing peace back to the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of argumentative essay questions and answers cooperation and the unity of essay all classes within the empire and the city of Rome itself. In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. The populace is essay questions, interested, apparently in two things, revolution and tradition.
Opposites? Not according to essay oedipus Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at least using rhetoric that is traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration. And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to argumentative essay and answers be superior. Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon shippensburg application you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do this not only in argumentative questions and answers word but also in deed, not only in essay public but also in private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors.
Entrust the questions, offices both of peace and of war to those who are the most excellent and the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to essay oedipus funny advance the argumentative questions and answers, private interests of this or that man, but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is of formal and informal, very important to Dio, since the questions and answers, senate is the very nexus of private interest, and shippensburg application everything that was bad about the old republic. It has proven itself incompetent in the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. The fact that Dio is part of this class is telling; he is no doubt speaking the truth for he breaks rank with his own class to condemn–at least the old–senate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the monarchy. As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to be brought into the realm of rule, not rejected by it. Hence one can be a senator and be pro-emperor. But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and allies of the Roman state, and and answers should not be treated as cash cows. This is very important, since the empire is based around a steady stream of revenue from the provinces.
His reform of the essays, rule of the provinces is something extremely important to Octavian, and and answers important to the stability of the e.b. white, empire. They need competent and public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of argumentative his plans with respect to the senate, are better for the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is central to the Roman idea, and cannot be destroyed by self-interest and self-seeking. Again, this is a central recurring theme throughout this work, and its influence on later generations of historians is essay, incalculable. The literary effect is argumentative questions, that the empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and funny way of essay political life. The emperor is populist, the shippensburg application essay, senate, oligarchic. Argumentative! They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and reappear throughout the history of the west.
The people, according to Dio (52, pg. 219), demand royal government. They see stability and legal reform–not to mention subsidies–coming from centralized government. They have had enough of the essay oedipus, division of the self-seeking politicians, and want the argumentative essay and answers, results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for them. Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to the oligarchy, to Antony’s former supporters, politicians and essay e.b. senators who want a free playing field for essay self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus.
Many of them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the exemplification and description, political wind is blowing in a certain direction. Argumentative Essay! The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by the notion of having full control over peaceful provinces such as Egypt. The plan and difference of formal development of rule is brilliant here, and the brilliance of argumentative essay questions and answers it is certainly not lost on Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the stuff of legend, in Octavian. Shippensburg! This is not to denigrate his historical credentials, but to understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into a true historical novelist. Questions And Answers! Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and patriotism, as well as populism in office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the 21st century.
Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the royal authority taken and created by Augustus has now “become tradition. ”(53, pg. 59) which is another way of saying that it has worked, for something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the goods that has withstood the test of time and created an even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the unity of the empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. “Such is the number and nature of the appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. ” So says Dio in Book 53. The emperor appears to be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Factions more than anything else are odious to the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the ability of the state to continue to achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is significant, for it is a central service of the Roman state, and this has been left to abandonment during the long period of civil wars and unrest. The roads are also a symbol of Roman unity, and hence, their repair and reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus’ plans and his public image. Application! The repair of the roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for the Roman population, they symbolize the unity and strength of the empire.
After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in that part of the essay and answers, world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the personal bodyguard of the emperor. The praetorian guard itself. At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to the people after the pacification of the Gallic province. Dio writes at exemplification and description the beginning of book 54 that the reign of questions and answers Augustus was “moderate. ” This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on the one hand, and slavish populism on the other. He created, in this sense, a new set of political virtues. There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there was–without a tear being shed–several more purges of the senatorial body.
Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the emperor. Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is found in the request of the senate–he always make such requests, regardless of his dominating the latter–that Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the understanding that it was now time to rationally govern what the Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of essay e.b. future conquests and the slaves and booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in developing it as such. He still seeks to maintain the fiction that the senate, though purged, was an independent body. Questions And Answers! , it was not, and its independence was challenged by the demand that rule be one of stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to this challenge. This is what was going on essay on quasars in the city. Augustus administered the questions and answers, subject territory according to the customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to make any additions to difference the former or to extend the latter by argumentative questions and answers, any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9)
On page 323, another important piece of legislation is discussed, that against difference bribe taking. Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced. Marriage and honest dealing were encouraged, and argumentative anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for 5 years. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by decreeing that any wealthy person in the empire is eligible for office. And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. In this way, more and more clients of the king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the understanding that money was the true route to power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class.
Here, he could split the upper class over the spoils of office. When he had done this, he purged the senatorial body. For the members seemed to him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in and informal a large throng; moreover, he hated not only those who were notorious for some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for their flattery. And when, as on the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the same oath, choose five at questions and answers a time, relatives not to be included, by writing the names on shippensburg tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by victorious missions to Gaul, where the essay, endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the Alpine region were pacified again and again. When things got too hot in the capital, it was easy to leave for a time, and earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference.
Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by e.b. white, Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the victories over them all the more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and even made daring raids into central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in the north. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the competence of the new reign, since the Senate, time and again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in the western provinces before. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and argumentative essay granted some cities their liberties under the indirect rule of Rome. Again, all of this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and system. It is precisely in this client building measures that the new system was to last as long as it did, to “become tradition” in the words of Dio.
These measures are clearly approved by our historian, as they are the very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and more trade and economic development. New classes of essay elites developed in the provinces which werre basically creates of the empire, for their owned their success to the Roman empire. Argumentative Essay Questions And Answers! Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. Using Paper! This is an issue that Dio returns to again and argumentative again. In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into poverty, he permitted “knights” or low level soldiers of distinction, to be able to take senatorial posts.
Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,. Hence, even among some of the shippensburg application, older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an argumentative and answers, excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the Roman knights, were given these posts, making the same a more and more popular body with the population, the army and with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and a research paper all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by the time the reader is argumentative essay questions, finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an of formal essays, ambiguous picture. There is the creation of argumentative questions and answers literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the senate, self seeking; the emperor, populist and strong; the people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the exemplification, army, ever fickle and corruptible. Ultimately, there is only one character in argumentative essay questions and answers this description: that of the empire itself. All the above types serve the empire in one way of another, some bad, others good. The army’s claim is based on its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to paper have no claim at all, except by claim of descent, a claim made absurd by Dio. Dio ends by implying that the empire is best served by a connection between people, army and emperor, and that the senate is argumentative essay questions, far from the repository of a research paper political wisdom it was created to be. Dio’s style is argumentative and answers, reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in fate, though this is essay oedipus, far from blind fate, and in argumentative essay questions Dio’s treatment, nothing is done by chance.
Virtue, and virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to everything. Man makes his own luck.
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The three different types of IELTS essay question. The first rule of IELTS essays is to answer the question. One problem in doing that is there are different types of IELTS essay questions each of questions and answers which poses its own problems. In this post, I talk you through the three main types of difference and informal essay questions and show you how to identify them and what problems they pose. I strongly suggest that you practise writing essays on each type of essay questions and answers question before you get to the exam. You will find a selection of essay questions organised by question type on using paper my sample essay question page. Here you are given a social issue or problem and asked directly to discuss it and very often asked to suggest a solution for it. In this type of question you are given the problem (here in argumentative essay questions red) and then told how to essay on quasars discuss it/your task (in blue). In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour . What do you think are the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? Many universities charge higher fees for foreign students.
Why do they do this? Do you believe that it is fair? “Why do they think that?” “What solutions can you suggest?” There are 2 typical problems with understanding this type of argumentative questions essay question. You are being asked for your personal opinion: it is not enough to talk generally about the topic. Essay? You must give your personal view . Very often you given two tasks: for example, to discuss the causes and the solution. If you discuss only one of these, you will be penalised on essay questions and answers Task Achievement.
The question does not give you much help with ideas: you may need to spend more time planning and shippensburg thinking of argumentative and answers ideas. Here you are given an essay opinion about some social issue to argumentative and answers discuss. Typically, you are asked whether or to essay e.b. white what extent you agree with it. In this type of question you are given an opinion (in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). Sometimes the question is essay and answers longer and you are given some background information (in green), then the opinion and then the task. Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. The idea that women are solely responsible for deciding whether or not to have babies leads on essay to the idea that they are also responsible for bringing the children up . To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at argumentative questions best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree or disagree? “What is essay you opinion?” “Do you agree that…” “To what extent do you agree?” Discuss. There are three typical problems with understanding this type of essay question:
The questions are simply longer to read and sometimes harder to understand. Spend plenty of argumentative and answers time reading the question and underlining the key words and making sure you understand what words like “this” and “these” refer to. Funny? It can be easy to confuse the essay background information from the exemplification essay opinion. Essay Questions? You must discuss the difference and informal opinion (the bit in red). If you only discuss the argumentative and answers topic (the bit in green), you will be penalised on Task Achievement.
You need to discuss the opinion in the question. You cannot only give your opinion. Here you are given a problem or issue and two different solutions or opinions about it. Typically, you are then asked to decide which solution/opinion is the better. The argument type essay question has two main types. In the first type, you get two different situations or opinions (red) and oedipus then your task (in blue) is to decide between them. In some countries people pay different rates of argumentative essay questions tax depending on essay their salary , in argumentative questions other countries everyone pays the same rate . Which do you believe is the best system? In the second type, you get a solution (in red) to a situation (in green) and you then your task (in blue) is to discuss the e.b. white advantages and disadvantages of that solution. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today . What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the argumentative questions working week to thirty five hours ? “What are the advantages and disadvantages of this”
There are two typical problems here: The essay discusses the problem generally and doesn’t talk about advantages or disadvantages or make a choice between the two options. Again this will be penalised under Task Achievement. E.b.? The essay only looks at essay questions the advantages or the essay oedipus disadvantages. It needs to argumentative questions and answers look at both sides of the question. I would like to emphasise that you may well find questions that could fall into two different categories. That is not so important.
What really matters is learning to look at each question and exemplification and description essay deciding what precisely it is argumentative essay questions and answers asking you to do and and description what possible problems it poses. This is my very simple checklist to argumentative and answers help you decide which type of question you are looking at: 1. Using Paper? Does it ask me what my own opinion is about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular proposal? > Proposal question > Discuss that proposal. 3. Does it ask me to decide between two different opinions or look at essay questions and answers the advantages and disadvantages of difference of formal a topic > Argument question> Discuss both sides and come to argumentative essay a decision. Look at these reported recent IELTS questions and paper decide which type of essay you need to write: Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise.
What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people think that paying taxes is argumentative essay questions enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. Essay? Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of 18? Many people nowadays leave their county to work abroad and argumentative essay and answers take their family with them. What are the advantages and disadvantages in difference of formal essays terms of family development?
Get more essay advice in your inbox. How to like it, share it and share it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 46 Responses to essay questions and answers The three different types of IELTS essay question. I have a question about the checklist above. 1. Does it ask me to of formal give my own opinion about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. — It seems to me this is a proposal question.
2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular opinion about a topic? > Proposal question > Discuss that opinion. Thanks for your highly intelligent comment. I have rewritten that section slightly now in argumentative the hope that it is essay on quasars clearer. There is perhaps a slight difficulty with terminology here. Questions And Answers? I’m tying to avoid the word “opinion essay” as much as possible. This post is not so much about the type of essay you write, as about understanding the problems of the essay question. For me, this is a necessary first step. I will in due course be looking at different types of essay. My point in difference of formal and informal essays distinguishing between proposal and discussion questions is this: in argumentative and answers the “Proposal Question”, you are “discussing” someone else’s point of view whereas in the “Discussion Question” you need to find your own solutions to a problem. For some candidates, the “Discussion Question” is nasty as it gives them less help with ideas.
When you come to write the essay, you will of course need to essay give your own opinions. From that point of argumentative questions and answers view it doesn’t matter what type of essay question you get. Thank you for further explanations and rewriting. Now I understood that you are telling about understanding the problems of the essay question and key points when I answer to different type of questions. I have a slightly irrelevant question. Is it okay to involve some ‘invented’ statistical data to an essay, when writing an example. Essay On Quasars? For instance: It has been proved scientifically that over 40 % of people hate their jobs.
thank you in advance. No problem whatsoever. There is no lie detector test in IELTS – it is after all only a test of your English. I would advise you, however, to be slightly careful not to be carried away when you do it. It certainly helps to argumentative questions keep your “data” plausible and shippensburg essay you need to make sure that it fits in with the essay question. In some ways it could even be seen as a “good thing” as it makes your writing more academic. Although in truth the IELTS essay is not a particularly academic piece of writing and I would generally advise you to keep your writing fairly plain and simple, as opposed to trying to show off academically. IELTS examiners are not academics! Here are some sample phrases for questions and answers, you to application consider: It has been demonstrated that.
Research has shown that. A recent opinion poll showed that. thanks, this clarifies a lot. hello again, Mr.Cole. There’s one thing that’s unclear to me about the proposal essay. Here’s the example. “Education should be free. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ” Should I take a firm position about only one side ( agree or disagree) and then devote the whole essay to proving this particular side, or should I describe both plus and minus of the statement and argumentative essay questions then say what i think in the conclusion ??
My overall band score is 7.5! Partly, this is essay your merit as well, since I was using plenty of information from questions, your website when trying to figure out the essay question type or developing my reading strategy. Thaks alot! I wish you further sucess. Need your help in ielts . My test is on 24 sep 2016. 4 weeks back i suddenly got the idea of essay e.b. white attempting ielts, so i booked a slot and had a descent 2 weeks of time to prepare . But due to and answers various reasons ( and on quasars most importantly laziness) the amount of time left to argumentative and answers me for preparation got reduced to 2 days.. jus 2 days to go for essay, IELTS and i din had any idea about it..i was going through the sample tests provided my British council but it hardly gave me any confidence… it was during that time when i accidentally came across your website.(Serendipity. )) and i was amazed.. All the information provided here were so organized and the instructions you provided were so simple but yet very effective.. i concentrated the last 2 days before my exam on your website..following all your guidelines.. ( especially the way you described the argumentative essay questions and answers working of brain under pressure was cool..) and did my best at the exam.. And today i got my result..an overall band of 7.5.. thanks a lot sir. ):) Thank you very much! I’ve struggled to picture the essay 3 types, and argumentative essay and answers they are clear to me now. This is essays Ajay from India.
I have taken IELTS 5 times till now any everytime I am getting 6.5 ..I disparately need 7 score but I am not able to understand where I am loosing that much needed 0.5. Can you help me to understand this. Also is there anyway you can review my essays. I’m simply too busy yo help sorry. It’s partly for this reason I’ve added online tutors to the site. Argumentative And Answers? They all look at and description essay essays. So I suggest you contact one of them.
Good luck with the 7. how could u got 6.5band in yur ielts. In advantages and disadvantages essay, can be take one side either of argumentative and answers advantages or disadvantages in conclusion paragraph. please reply soon because my ielts test is coming soon. This will depend slightly on how the question is using worded. Always always read the question very carefully. If the essay questions and answers question is “Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this proposal”.
I would suggest you need to shippensburg application essay mention both sides of the argumentative essay questions and answers argument in your conclusion. This is because your conclusion should reflect your whole essay. You can of course also say that in your opinion the advantages are greater than the essay disavantages and so write more about them. Another common form of advantage/disadvantage essay question is argumentative essay “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this proposal?” Here you have 3 basic options: 1. You can agree. 2. You can disagree. 3. You can agree and disagree. In this case, you must make your position clear in the conclusion. hello Mr cole i realy want to thank you for sending me this amazing email But i have one question ihave taken ielts exam thrice and on every exam 5 without any develope idont know why the same mark. i have only 1 day for my exam still iam confused about of formal writing can plzzzzzzzzzzz help so dat i can get a band 7 in writing. infact while searching on net i came to know about ur site and i really found it very helpul but still give me tips for d last minute preparation plzzzzzzzz.
One day before is essay questions and answers too late to do anything serious. the best thing you can do is relax and using paper clear your head. It helps to have a clear strategy for each paper – particularly for timing. If you feel in control, you feel better and should perform better. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in writing. The topic was :now-a-days the argumentative questions natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by essay white garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that?
What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in argumentative essay questions each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in funny the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, i’m afraid you do.
An essay without a conclusion is not an essay and you will have been penalised for task response. It is not perfect but the advice is to write a sentence conclusion if you are running out of time so that at least you have something there for the examiner to look at. For me, a good conclusion does make an essay better. It is a skill worth practising. It need not be a long/complex conclusion, but if you can briefly summarise the essay and return to argumentative essay and answers the introduction, it does help your task response. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in essay writing. Argumentative Questions? The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by essays two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs.
I forgot to questions and answers write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, sadly for you the conclusion is needed. It is an essential part of an essay. I would like to exemplification and description essay Thank you and all the Blog participants for clearing out many confusions for IELTS candidates. However, I have few questions where I feel myself weak.
1. Essay Questions? How can I use a strong vocabulary in Writing Exam? Is there any list of essay good words which can be used instead of general words? 2. Reading Exams are lengthy, the argumentative and answers pressure built’s more when you are on the last passage with tough vocabulary to understand and have a general idea. What do you suggest? Please, do pray as I am appearing for IELTS tomorrow. Good luck tomorrow. Get a good night’s sleep and try to relax is my best advice. On writing the best vocab is very often simple vocab. many candidates get this wrong and try and use over-complex words. You may not believe this, but all my essays are at essay e.b. white least band score 8.0 and mostly 9.0. Don’t be fooled that they use simple language.
They are well written and clearly written. Essay? A key to writing is understanding that 50% of the score is for coherence and task response. Take a look at on quasars IELTS Simon’s blog – you will find he says the same thing. On reading, yes time can be a problem. Remember some questions are just plain hard and would trick intelligent native speakers. Don’t get stuck, move on.
Thank you for shedding some light on the types of essay and answers essay that might be posed on IELTS exams and strategies on how to tackle it. However, I have been led to believe that in proposal questions, especially when the questions goes ” To what extent….” I have to using give caveats to the proposal rather than fully agree or disagree. And believe me there are some topics that I have very strong views about and yet my marker penalised me on argumentative essay questions and answers TR for not stating to oedipus what extent I agree or disagree with the stated proposals even though in essay questions my essays I have written I strongly believe!! As a result I am one confused bunny and find proposal questions a nightmare!! Please help! your blog is wonderful and does wonders in and description essay helping for the. exam. however, your essay question types is confusing, especiall proposal and questions argumentitive coz all of them are answerd using the same approach, i.e argumentitive type.
I have got IELTS exam after 2 weeks and i need to get 7 each in any case. last time i just got 5.5 in writing could you please help me how to improve my writing in essay couples of week. I am preparing for my IELTS exam scheduled on 26th of May and your website has helped me in understanding the essay and answers expectations of this test. It has been a while since I have written any letters and essays and this worries me a lot whether I would be able to write material of Band score 7+. Thanks a lot for the detailed information. I am confused about the types of writing. You mentioned the essay oedipus different types but not the ways to answer each of them. Could you illustrate how to answer the different types please? I will give the exam about 45 days later.
Do you have any recommendation about writing and other things? In August the argumentative essay and answers plan to produce an essay a day – each essay illustrating a different writing skill – this should include looking at different types of essay questions. I didn’t get it. Have you answered my question. Could you mention a comprehensive resource to find out these types and the way to answer them please? Hi – the resource I was thinking of appears not to be available on the internet and so I will need to put something together myself to difference and informal essays help you out. Argumentative Questions And Answers? For the time being I suggest you check out writefix – this is an white excellent writing site where you can find different types of essays illustrated. I aim to post something on this in the next few days – possibly Monday. Argumentative Essay Questions And Answers? In the meantime, can I suggest that there is no one way to answer each question type ie an application opinion essay is ABBA , a discursive essay ABCA and so on. It is perfectly possible for instance to look at both sides of the questions and answers argument in a “do you agree/disagree” type question much as you would in a discuss essay. It all depends on essay on quasars what you as a an individual think about that question.
One person may choose to argumentative answer the question in one way and another in application another way. The examiner does not sit down and say “This is an opinion essay and it must be structured like this”- rather they look at whether you have answered the question as it is argumentative essay and answers asked. i’m really confused Rayn’s website mention some steps which looked too easy to using paper follow but when i read some para from the ielts book the follow another steps ( totally different ) …. i’m nt that good in English to argumentative join both of them or choose which one is the best …… SO PLEASE CAN YOU HELP ME . i’m dying to get only and description essay, band 5 because my university asked for that. please reply soon #128577; i have an questions exam after 15 days.
Thanks a lot for these very informative lessons you have done. Difference And Informal? I would like to ask further information in argumentative questions and answers writing proposals or “to what extent questions”. How many paragraphs should one write? Is it a 5 paragraph essay? No one answer to this question. And Description Essay? It depends in argumentative essay and answers what is in your head!
You should be prepared to write both 4 and 5 para essays. If you have more points, it will be 5. Difference? If you have only 2 points, then a 4 para essay is and answers fine. There are numerous essay writing directive words that a student needs to be across (e.g. discuss, describe, explain, compare, contrast, etc). If you don’t clearly understand what is being asked of you, then you have next to no chance of funny writing an essay and answers excellent essay. Agreed. I would add as a personal opinion that I believe it is dangerous to focus on “types of essay”. My strong preference is to focus on exemplification and description essay the question and answer that question in a logical way. The danger of following a format for an opinion essay, for essay and answers, example, is that you can fail to address the question by concentrating too much on and informal essays a particular format. 1)Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? —- My answer: Discussion type.
2) Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. Questions And Answers? To what extent do you agree or disagree? —- My answer: Proposal type. 3) Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. —- My answer: Discussion type. 4)Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the on quasars age of argumentative 18? —- My answer: Argument type. 5) Many people nowadays leave their country to work abroad and take their family with them. What are the advantages and difference and informal disadvantages in terms of family development? —- My answer: Argument type. This is one of those lesson I’m in the process of reviewing and updating. Argumentative Essay? I hope to produce a much clearer version soonish.
Hi there, I enjoy rdading t?rough yo?r post. ² wanted to write a little cokmment tto support ?ou. In your description on essay types you have mentioned “you will be penalised under Task Achivement” but Task Achievement criterion is used in exemplification and description essay marking Task 1 , I guess. Okay – nice observational skills. TY for comment. I need to update my resources on argumentative essay and answers this generally. Funny? But in truth task achievement and questions and answers task response are close to interchangeable as names. It is important to see though that task 1 does have its own criteria. it would be really helpful if you wrote other articles about different types of essays and general structures for each type. Paper? I hope you would consider doing it, thank you so much for your advice on this site! […] Question type Read the IELTS question carefully and argumentative ensure that you know what you are being asked to write. It’s no use putting pen to paper until you are sure you know what type of essay you are being asked to produce.
Dominic Cole expalins things very well on this page. […] […] is a proposal type question where we are asked to give our opinion about whether improving health education would have a […]
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IELTS Writing Task 2: Argument Essay …
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?Critique of a Research Article Essay. This paper presents a critique of a qualitative research article titled: ‘Perceived support from healthcare practitioners among adults with type 2 diabetes’ (Oftedal et al, 2010) (appendix 1). To enable the critique of argumentative and answers this article the Caldwell critiquing tool (2005) will be utilized. (Appendix 2) Research critiquing is a valuable skill, to gain as it enables student nurses to develop and improve knowledge and difference and informal essays, skills and also adheres to the NMC code of conduct (NMC, 2008). Polit and Beck (2006) emphasis the ability to analyse research enables individuals to argumentative and answers gain knowledge.
A great importance of research is that it introduces improvements and changes into practice based from evidence based practice (EBP). According to Pioneer David Sacklett (2000). EBP can be defined as “the integration of the best research evidence and clinical expertise, and patient values” (Sacklett,2000). And Description? This article was selected as diabetes is becoming an international epidemic affecting all healthcare professions (WHO,2012). First point of interest to a reader is the argumentative essay questions and answers title; giving clear indication of the subject (Polit and beck, 2012). It should grab the attention of a reader as discussed by Parahoo (2006).
A good title should contemplate all aspects of the e.b. white above, also considering Polit and Becks (2012) thoughts on the title being with a 15 word limit. This title is very clear to the reader, in relation to the subject under study being short, concise and use of good language. Appropriate selection for a research paper relies highly on validity and reliability, which can be shown via credentials of argumentative essay questions and answers authors. Working statues within health studies and behavioural research within university of Stavanger clearly quoted against each of the authors. This article has clearly labelled, educational status and working status of all authors. Willis (2007) believes that an author’s academic background can give validity and credibility within the difference of formal and informal essays research itself. Education held by authors was ‘MSc, PhD, RNT’ being of an university level (Oftedal et al, 2010). Further interest to a reader commences from the information shown within an abstract.
This has to hold enough information for it to show a brief understanding of the study in place. Holloway and Wheeler (2010) recommend a clear, concise summary of the research and essay questions and answers, how it should be implemented. Exemplification And Description Essay? Burns and Grove (2007) mention good abstracts convey findings and capturing attention of a reader. A benefit to this article is that it is clear, readable and structured with subheadings providing a deeper structured understanding. The introduction of this article evidently outlines the essay rationale for the study; with reference of findings from other relevant studies completed.
Holloway and essay e.b., Wheeler (2010) declare authors have to questions provide awareness of their subject and reasons for their study. Suggestions made indicated that it is difference essays, paramount for argumentative and answers, study for the improvements to be made, emphasising on exemplification and description essay, the rise in statistics from the condition (Oftedal et al, 2010). Within the argumentative essay article, there is no clear indication of a literature review. Although, through reading this it has become apparent that it has been included within the background section. Polit and Beck (2012) discuss a literature review being a summary of previous research. On Quasars? Explanations are given within reference to other studies such as Schilling et al (2002) which has shown to lack empirical evidence. However, Thorne and Paterson (2001) look at aspects, but indicate more research can be done. The purpose of a literature review is argumentative essay and answers, essential as it gives more emphasis on why the study is important; for instance lack of previous research on the subject. Within this article has an disadvantage, because there is no clear stating of oedipus a literature review, which would in some circumstances confuse a reader. Research referenced within the article was between the years 1992-2008; mentioning the need for further research (Oftedal et al, 2010).
A purpose for an article is to generalise there aims, informing subject under study stating what is questions, likely to be achievable from the study; Polit and beck (2012) emphasis this being an importance. Difference And Informal? The aim is clearly sub headed giving the reader clear positioning within the report, it is short and concise with relevant information; indicating the subject of study and what is and answers, desired. The aim being ‘perceived support from healthcare and essay, different attributes, that influence people’s self-management of the disease’ (Oftedal et al, 2010). The study is complete by using participants. Ethical issues have a vast importance relating to argumentative questions the validity and credibility of the research. Approval of ethical committee’s is exceptional, including reference. Difference Of Formal And Informal? Legal rights and ethical aspects for argumentative essay, all research methods have to of formal and informal be considered (Holloway and Wheeler, 2002; Moule 2011; Strubert, 2011). The study appears to have been approved by Norwegian regional committee for argumentative essay, medical and essay oedipus funny, health research ethics, social science data services all having reference provided.
Implications can be studied at and answers length but four rights are paramount in research: the right not to be harmed, the right of full disclosure, the right to self-determination and the right to privacy, anonymity and confidentiality (ICN, 2012). Application Essay? It is apparent from the study that informed consent was gained from participants, as an invitation was sent, and approval from participants was gained. The right to withdraw was shown as two participants never contributed from initial approval. Methodology is discussed by Parahoo (2007) simply as a plan that describes, how, when and where data is to be collected and analysed. This article does not visibly show methodology but it is an interchangeable term such as research design is present. An advantage from the article is that further reading and comprehension is not necessary as it obviously indicates this research as “interpretive and descriptive qualitative design” (Oftedal et al, 2010). Argumentative Essay? Holloway and Wheeler (2002) state it gives an difference of formal essays understanding of human experiences, giving an advantage to this research as it is what they wish to achieve. Additionally, Holloway and Wheeler (2010) discuss, how roots with philology and the human science, especially in history, centring the way humans related to essay their subjective reality and using paper, attaching a meaning. to it. Approach taken solely on world life context rather than individuality; allowing more of an understanding of human experiences at a whole.
This type of research allows authors to gain characteristics within this field. Argumentative Essay Questions? Usage of the data is to develop theories and identify problems with current practice (Burns and Grove, 2007; Gerrish and Lacey, 2010). Outcomes achieved five themes, namely: an empathetic approach, practical advice and information, involvement in decision making, accurate and individualised information and e.b. white, on-going based support (Oftedal et al, 2010). Questions? These are gained via interpretive and essay on quasars, descriptive qualitative design, as it focusses more natural environments rather than cause and argumentative questions and answers, effect which is quasi-experimental. Using A Research? This concept being noticeably identified via the research, this was conducted. Details of the participants can be found within the article visibly labelled participants. A participant enables the researcher to conduct the study; Burns and Grove (2012) suggest participants are selected due to experience, knowledge and views related to the study in the progress aiding the researcher to gain accurate information.
Within this article, the type of sampling which has been declared is essay and answers, purposive sampling; Parahoo (2006) suggests that this type of sampling conducted is chosen because it provides more reliable and valid data as it is represented by participants diagnosed with the condition. Furthermore the essay participants, who were invited to take part, were recruited via referrals, from local organisations relating to questions diabetes such as learning and coping. Ability to speak Norwegian and be within an age bracket of 30-65 allows the data to be more accurate. As discussed, sampling was purposeful; therefore it emphasises the reliability. Using A Research Paper? The sample size used for this research was 19 participants recruited from 3 organisations, unemployed to argumentative and answers reduce bias. Mixed gender, aged 30-65 and all participants had the condition for difference and informal, a minimum of one year. Although, purposive sampling is used it does not indicate which strategy; for instance, Patton (2002) allocates more than 12 for argumentative, qualitative research, Polit and Beck (2012) note there being no fixed rules for sample size, although Morse (2000) mentions how much broad the scope, reflects in the sample size. This research has an advantage as it focussed on participants whom are diabetic.
However limitations being restricted are age group, and metabolic generalisation. For example: participants within the study all had the controlled blood glucose levels, there was no sample members who shown uncontrolled or unstable diabetes. Data collection from the research conducted was presented within a table. Collected via focus groups, consisting of 6-7 person per session, participants were interviewed at the workplace of the authors and mixture of genders per group. Although as mentioned by a research, Polit and Hungler (1997) advantage being that it increases dialogue; disadvantage being an argumentative decrease for exemplification and description, those not comfortable voicing within a group.
As it has it pros and cons we can establish that all participants’ had type 2 disease therefore would not have much influence on responses. Limits of time, and for essay, 2 sessions was placed by researchers. The authors recommended time for reflection between sessions. The models used, were identified with the essay oedipus funny data collection section being expectancy-value and social support theory for questions within the focus groups. All the participants spoke one language; Norwegian which is an advantage to others as it is easier to transcribe. The focus groups explained in data analysis was audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, creating auditability. The analysis was as stated “Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness” (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004; Oftedal et al, 2010, p1503). Argumentative Essay Questions? Processes took place for this study, unmistakably shown as coding to essay breakdown text into parts; identifying patterns within the data (Burns and Grove, 2006; Holland and Rees, 2010). After identifying codes, this enables the themes to be developed which was interrelated as findings of the argumentative essay study.
Furthermore, data management requires clear processes to essay ensure methodological rigour and credibility of the essay questions findings (Burns and Grove, 2007). According to essay on quasars Polit and Beck (2006) a reader should consider if the data is adequate, to be published in a clear and efficient manner. This article has appropriately labelled correctly making it readable and understandable. The results gained from the data analysis, is clearly drawn within the article under the findings section; providing the established themes, creating an understanding for the reader of essay how and why they found referenced themes. Polit and Beck (2013) discuss how a reader should notably find limitations within the study. this article presents a limitation section outlining a discussion of how it affects the results and further addresses possible queries that can be made such as, different attributes that can be found from people without stable metabolic ranges as it was limited to acceptable metabolic levels (Oftedal et al, 2010). The impact of results found can construct towards EBP. Paper? Additionally, the essay authors have discussed implications for practice within the study. This advantage is a favourable point as it leads the reader of the essay e.b. white implications and argumentative essay, how it can be implemented.
It focuses hugely on how beneficial it is difference of formal and informal essays, when it comes to practice. According to essay transferability of these findings it becomes apparent that type 2 diabetes is a worldwide increasing problem. Essay Oedipus Funny? Results can be transferrable to any country to improve better care for those with type 2 diabetes. Argumentative Essay Questions And Answers? The study was conduct in essay Norway, although it is based within another country the argumentative and answers prevalence is still applicable in the UK. Essay? Holloway and argumentative essay and answers, Wheeler (2010) discuss the meaning of transferability as “findings of essay one context that can be transferred to similar situations or participants” diabetes is a worldwide known disease (WHO, 2012) it can be transferred.
Polit and Beck (2013) reference that for the generalisation of the study; it has to be valid and reliable for this to take place. The role of essay and answers a nurse becomes paramount within this section. Exemplification And Description Essay? Whether the results can be implemented by a nurse in practice, such as supporting patients in a better manner and referring if needed for more education, giving more individualisation to self-management programmes as discussed within the article (Oftedal et al, 2010). In relation to the conclusion within the article it clearly sums up the findings and how it can be implemented within practice. It states that further research is necessary before definite conclusions can be retained. Transferability of the research to other chronic illness similar to type 2 diabetes was also mentioned. Burns and Grove (2010) express that the findings and the meaning of the research should be placed within the conclusion. The assignment has explored the significance within research and EBP, transferability of research and essay and answers, recommendation have an importance in this. Overall, this article was clear with good use of words, presentation was greatly achieved, allowing the reader to be more focussed. It discussed within itself the limitations, recommendations and the need for further research for this to funny become meaningful. Recommendations can be viewed as knowledge and implemented within practice from this study.
Also showing that evidence based practice does start from research; it is argumentative essay questions, shown that studies are required in some circumstances to essay e.b. white gain more knowledge to improve services. Burns, N, Grove, S K (2006) Understanding nursing research: Building an argumentative evidence based practice 4th ed Elsevier Saunders, United States of America. Burns, N, Grove, S K (2007) Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice. 5th ed. Elsevier Saunders, United States of AmericaCaldwell, K., Henshaw, L., and Taylor, G. (2005) Developing a frame-work for critiquing health research, Journal of health, social and envi-ronmental issues, 6(1), pp45-53. [accessed via: https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/2981/1/Developing_a_framework_for_critiquing_health_research.pdf] [accessed 20/05/2013] Cutcliffe, J. and Ward, M. (eds.) (2007) Critiquing nursing research. Oedipus? 2nd ed.
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