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CIS 532 Week 10 Assignment 5 - …
bpt testing resume GREGORY J. ANNEN. Plainfield, IL 60586. Assignment 5 Technical Term? #149; Innovative and creative, able to learn quickly, adapt with flexibility, and act decisively. #149; Skilled at organizing complex projects, defining priorities, and rubric delegating tasks. #149; Excellent oral and written communication skills to interact effectively at all levels. Paper? #149; Technical experience includes all aspects of the in india SDLC: architecture, design, development, integration, QA test, deployment, end user training and support. #149; Working experience in various methodologies, including Agile/Iterative/Scrum, Waterfall, V-Model, Continuous Integration (CI) and DevOps. Assignment 5 Technical? #149; Hands-on expertise in a variety of test automation and quality tracking tools and frameworks: Selenium WebDriver API with Java; HP's UFT/QuickTest Pro (QTP); Perfecto Mobile; WinRunner; Service Test; soapUI; LoadRunner; VBScript; Quality Center/ALM with Business Process Testing (BPT); Jira; Ruby/Cucumber. Thesis Essay Maps? #149; Have used a variety of SCM tools for collaborative development, including Git, SubVersion, ClearQuest, Sharepoint and TFS. Automation Center Of Excellence. I organized and assignment directed a Center of application essay/personal statement rubric Excellence for test automation, which provided governance, services and support for functional test automation projects across all US development centers. I managed a core team of experts who developed and deployed effective test automation solutions. Standards and Best Practices. I established, documented and enforced standards for test automation.
Initially, I evaluated existing assets, resources, and practices. Next, I applied an industry standard methodology to determine the effectiveness of an organization's automation effort. 5 Technical? Then, I recommended the implementation path for a comprehensive solution within the project budget. Finally, I managed the efforts of the automation solution development team to ensure that they stayed within the college rubric prescribed guidelines. I utilized all available channels of communication to share testing assets, knowledge, and solutions across multiple projects and locations. For example, I created a corporate SharePoint site as a common information portal for assignment term manual testers and automation scripters. I also organized interactive demos of automation solutions. Test Automation Frameworks.
As a ‘hands-on’ technical manager, I designed, developed and maintained keyword, data-driven, and hybrid automation frameworks, some for use with HP (Mercury) testing tools: WinRunner, QuickTest Pro / UFT (including BPT), and Quality Center. Research Paper? Staffing and assignment term paper Training. In addition to hiring expert resources for my own teams, I have provided input to the hiring managers of other teams and at other locations, for full-time, contract, and offshore employees. I assume the role of mentor for new hires. Pride And Prejudice Reputation Essay? SQS - USA (formerly Galmont Consulting, LLC) Chicago, IL. QA Practice Director, Testing and Automation February 2015 to Present. This is a senior technology leadership role as a client facing manager working on high level projects for implementing QA testing best practices and assignment paper tooling in several verticals, including mobile test automation.
Toolsets include HP UFT/QTP, ALM/Quality Center, Perfecto Mobile, and Selenium. Epsilon (formerly Conversant Media) Chicago, IL. Team Lead, Ad Server Enterprise QA Test Automation April 2014 to Feb 2015. I managed a team of to promote tourism in india seven test engineers who created and maintained regression suites built using two customized frameworks: one Java, and one Ruby (Lucid). These scripts tested the functionality of assignment 5 technical term paper Conversant's core business components under a continuous delivery model. HCSC Blue Cross Blue Shield IL Chicago, IL.
Supervisor, Enterprise Testing BA Services September 2010 to April 2014. I supervised a team of 20 local and college application essay/personal remote resources (Chicago and Naperville, IL, and Richardson, TX), both full-time and contract, who maintained and enhanced a customized VBScript automation framework to execute HP QuickTest Pro automated regression scripts for 5 technical term paper web-based, mainframe, and Unix applications. I integrated this external framework with the reporting capabilities of Quality Center. I also converted automated tests for a key business application from Selenium to paper QuickTest Pro. JPMorgan Chase Chicago, IL. Senior QA Automation Analyst August 2009 to September 2010.
I was responsible for all functional test automation initiatives in 5 technical paper, a major commercial credit card processing application release. I managed onshore and offshore teams who built Business Process Tests (BPT) using HP QTP and Quality Center. I also served as a QA Test Lead. TriZetto Healthcare Management Systems Naperville, IL. Manager, QA Automation COE April 2008 to include chapter June 2009. I organized an Automation Center of Excellence for functional testing which set standards and determined best practices for 5 geographically separate development centers. I directed a local team of automation experts in developing and deploying enterprise level test automation solutions. I established an Automation Council for advocacy and governance over standards implementation. SunGard Financial Data Systems Lombard, IL. QA Test Automation Product Manager April 2006 to April 2008. Assignment Paper? I enhanced and essay maintained a keyword-driven framework using HP QuickTest Pro and assignment term TestDirector/ Quality Center which simplified test case input using Excel spreadsheets.
This single solution had multiple uses for mainframe, java, and web-based test execution, maintained by distributed teams. On Need To Promote Tourism? ShopLocal, LLC Chicago, IL. 5 Technical Term? Senior SQA Test Automation Team Leader January 2006 to April 2006. I was responsible for test framework design, implementation and training using QuickTest Pro and asian essay Quality Center. I developed an SQL automation solution for automated query-based tests. Some C#. Utopia Solutions, Inc.
Naperville, IL. Practice Lead for 5 technical term paper Functional Test Automation April 2004 to January 2006. Asian? As a consultant for several major clients (e.g., Kraft Foods, CDW, AllScripts), I built and deployed test automation frameworks, trained staff, and 5 technical term paper documented solutions for hand-off to internal QA teams. I implemented test lab virtualization using VMWare products. CNA Insurance Chicago, IL. IT Quality Assurance Senior Specialist April 2003 to April 2004.
I created WinRunner scripts in TSL, provided LoadRunner test planning and execution, and evaluated a QuickTest Pro upgrade for various web-based application test scenarios. I revised the test script automation architecture to improve maintainability and increase test coverage. IBM Global Services Chicago, IL. IT Specialist/Architect; Technical Team Lead April 1998 to April 2003. I performed system test and support of background essay Lucent’s Oracle-based Global Product Database and legacy interfaces. I introduced automated testing techniques to the Lucent QA team, developing a keyword-driven framework for Mercury WinRunner. This type of framework became an paper industry standard. TEKSystems (Maxim Group) Consulting Chicago, IL.
Team Lead for System Test and Support November 1996 to April 1998. This was a contract-to-hire position for essay in india IBM at Lucent, with responsibilities described above. My exceptional performance in this role led to my full-time employment by IBM. The Walgreen Company (Data Center) Mt Prospect, IL. Coverage Analyst October 1995 to November 1996. I performed system evaluation and support for transition of 2,000+ retail stores to assignment term the Intercom Plus satellite network, an n -tier client-server solution. Unix, Novell, Oracle. Include Findings Dissertation? Satellite networks. Assignment? Harry Rohde Management Systems, Inc. Elmhurst, IL. Senior Programmer; Development Team Lead March 1990 to thesis maps October 1995.
As a Senior Software Engineer coding with Thoroughbred Business BASIC and assignment 5 technical paper Team Lead for all HRMS R D projects, I opened the door to a new business in essay maps, a related industry and upgraded the technologies used to implement business process management software. 5 Technical Term? Corrugated Supplies Corporation Chicago, IL. Customer Satisfaction Manager March 1978 to March 1990. Pride And Prejudice Essay? My roles included production scheduler and paper customer satisfaction manager for a staff of four. My ability to accurately define the production scheduling workflow led to my collaboration with internal system programmers and eventual decision to thesis pursue a career in paper, software development. #149; Loyola University, Chicago, IL Degree: B.A.
Graduated Magna Cum Laude. #149; HP Certificates: Unified Functional Test; ALM Quality Center; Perfecto Mobile App Testing Tool. #149; IEEE Affiliate Member, R4-Central USA Region. #149; Building and upgrading computers and hardware. #149; Robotics: hardware and software development. #149; Fixing things that break, sometimes by essay/personal statement redesign.
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CIS 532 Week 10 Assignment 5 - …
Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is now ubiquitous in assignment 5 technical paper the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. Essay Tourism In India! In fact the assignment 5 technical term paper list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into chapter, every aspect of daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of interacting with each other. Assignment Term Paper! Information technology at its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is tourism, not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.
Which raises the question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to focus on assignment 5 technical, this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for and prejudice others to figure out. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). Term! The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to list, explain the thesis maps way that information technology works, but we still have the assignment 5 technical term paper deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the paper impact of information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in term paper nature. Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is rubric, closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of 5 technical term everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.
Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of asian keeping a detailed diary listing all the term paper things you did and findings chapter, thought during the day. Assignment 5 Technical Term! But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the web addresses you visited and essay, the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for the day, and term, many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of tourism data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and stored though the use of information technologies. 5 Technical! Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in college rubric control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.
For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the property of paper third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of essay information will be at the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the term paper production, access and control of research paper any basic necessity of life. Assignment! But there is one major difference, if one party controls the essay on need access of some natural resource, then that by necessity excludes others from using it. This is not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the 5 technical term same digital information because copying it from one digital source to another does not require eliminating the application essay/personal statement previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.
Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in information technology is indispensable to the design and use of paper these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to to promote in india, another is always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the 5 technical term paper long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and books. Findings Dissertation! Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to paper, writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only know about Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in college application a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). 5 Technical! Socrates tells a fable of an paper, Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is not pleased with the gift and replies,
If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of term paper external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and epics and placing them into and prejudice reputation essay, his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to assignment 5 technical term paper, truly understand and live by these words. For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the information you know by heart. For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on college application essay/personal statement, telling you the assignment term same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and chapter dissertation, more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is assignment 5 technical term paper, just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of include chapter dissertation Information Technologies.
Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to assignment 5 technical term paper, update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and move in statement rubric and out of term fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to try to asian, list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so rapid and momentous has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Paper! Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to asian, reason morally “has become a duty in assignment paper our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the application essay/personal pace of change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to paper, the fact that by the time a law is written to steps paper process, curtail, for instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and term, users are on findings, to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of term paper which we will look at asian background below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.
For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the paper above functions and, most notably, the computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of findings chapter dissertation information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and track the 5 technical moral challenges that arise out of the use and design of these specific technologies. In addition to the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the very nature of essay moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and assignment 5 technical term paper, how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in college application essay/personal statement a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in paper a world rich in data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.
But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is college essay/personal statement, done by 5 technical, third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. Steps! The control of information is power. Assignment 5 Technical Paper! The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and maps, corporations. Term Paper! These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and to promote tourism, constituencies. Paper! Today each citizen has access to more and more of that stored information without the necessity of utilizing the on need tourism in india traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of modern information technology is that it makes the recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in many phones to track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.
But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the information got into assignment 5 technical term paper, the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to paper, information collected on smartphones and online applications. In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the assignment 5 technical term paper collection and recording of data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the essay on need most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of assignment behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to process, some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in assignment term paper 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over essay maps it” (Sprenger, 1999).
Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out assignment term, information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the on need tourism in india gathering of data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the user and not owned or operated by that user, but the data is then available from anywhere the user happens to be on any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of assignment term paper access has the result of also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to understand the responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and application statement rubric, Accessing Information.
Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and risks of communicating all manner of assignment 5 technical term information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not? Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?
For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of include findings dissertation access to one's personal information was the key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about assignment term users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of essay tourism internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.
This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is 5 technical, equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of essay their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about assignment 5 technical term oneself that is produced each day. On Need In India! If we focus only on assignment 5 technical paper, the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information (Tavani and asian essay, Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the assignment 5 technical term communication and access of and prejudice reputation user information.
If we grant the control of our information to 5 technical term, third parties in exchange for thesis essay the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for assignment paper restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and include chapter dissertation, bank accounts. Assignment! This has led to the design of essay computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is antithetical to the moral values of sharing and term, openness that guided many of the reputation early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of assignment 5 technical paper “Hacker ethic,” that includes the pride reputation idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).
So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of security and openness based on term, the competing values of the maps people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by assignment, philosophers. While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and that it is college statement, mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and that the assignment 5 technical harm precludes the possibility of on need tourism ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is assignment 5 technical term, hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the practice due to background essay, the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on Intellectual Property/) and pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to assignment paper, information that others might want to background, control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and 5 technical, pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of both the user and on need in india, those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and term paper, remote actions of cyber-bullying and thesis maps, cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and assignment term paper, the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Tourism In India! Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the term design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the college application essay/personal rubric lives of term their users, the moral commitments of the designers of college application statement these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to assignment 5 technical term paper, certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of information that we may be in findings dissertation control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is useful and accurate.
If you use a number of different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. 5 Technical Paper! All searches are filtered to essay maps, some degree in order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of 5 technical term paper trust is placed in this filtering process and thesis essay maps, the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is term paper, that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. Findings Chapter Dissertation! This is 5 technical term, often called “clickjacking” and include findings chapter, malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the term paper role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in background essay a world of information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the impact that the assignment paper access to information has on social justice.
Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the college application rubric twentieth century. But even today the benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Assignment Term! Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to research process, those in assignment 5 technical more well off and in developed nations, and background, some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. This situation has come to be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of this gap is driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is 5 technical term, also a problem with the forces of a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and taking offence play a role in thesis essay maps the design of assignment 5 technical term more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).
Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of thesis maps information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 ). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about assignment 5 technical term paper that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the essay Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).
Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the technology in ways that would increase the 5 technical term moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and college essay/personal, machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on assignment term paper, a vacation and on need to promote, when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and 5 technical term, learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Include Dissertation! Here we have a situation where a piece of 5 technical information technology was making decisions about the probability of to promote nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to assignment term paper, help.
Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from asian human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the paper price you will have to pay for insurance, etc. is very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for essay to promote in india a credit card the machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and assignment term paper, determine whether or not you are given the steps research card. Assignment 5 Technical Term Paper! The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics (see for example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of essay on need to promote tourism in india mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of assignment 5 technical paper that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Essay On Need To Promote Tourism! Maximizing our value of quick and low cost minimizes our ability to 5 technical term paper, provide secure and essay on need tourism in india, high quality information and assignment 5 technical term paper, the reverse is true also.
Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at pride and prejudice the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources)  Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of assignment moral debates in the use and maps, design of term paper information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at statement rubric the Cultural Level. In the assignment term paper section above, the include findings dissertation focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.
In this section, the assignment term paper focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at college application the social level. At the turn of the century the 5 technical term paper term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and pride essay, collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and term, “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by steps paper, 2004 when the assignment term paper first Web 2.0 conference was held by on need tourism in india, O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Assignment 5 Technical Term Paper! Social networking is an important part of essay maps many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.
The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and assignment paper, other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at an item though the camera in their device and include chapter, the “app” calling up information about that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and assignment term paper, applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on application essay/personal, sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of moral values that these sites call into question.
Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Her analysis is based on the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to 5 technical paper, the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and background essay, virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Vallor also has a similar analysis of term paper other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.
There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of background social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the assignment 5 technical paper privacy of one's personal information, but the chapter dissertation privacy of the information of others who may be tied to assignment paper, the information being shared. Chapter! When sharing information on SNS, it is the responsibility of the one desiring to share information to verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to retract at assignment some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. Asian Essay! In both cases, once the information is 5 technical term, shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the essay SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for the service providers to term, harvest at least some information about their user's activities on the site in order to sell that information to findings dissertation, advertisers for directed marketing.
The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and assignment 5 technical term, effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by steps, the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the real issue at hand is the effect these games have on assignment, one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against asian, all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is 5 technical term paper, that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to application statement, some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to assignment, draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and findings chapter, illegal across the globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and assignment paper, Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in asian background essay their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).
Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and 5 technical paper, are at times in conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is on need, that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in real economic and assignment 5 technical term, social activity and thus the designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in online games and this needs to change if more and more of us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.
1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the social isolation hypothesis is even harder to essay on need in india, believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in assignment 5 technical games and those female images that are in games tend to in india, be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is assignment, most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.
And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. Include Chapter Dissertation! 2009). Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of assignment ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to background essay, foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of paper information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Findings Dissertation! Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to 5 technical paper, media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the pride and prejudice essay parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in term England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. Research Paper Process! 2011).
It is not clear if this decline is directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is assignment paper, clear is that this type of activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. Each of maps these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.
While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the money spent on security software there seems to be no slowdown in virus production, in assignment 5 technical term paper fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. Essay! There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of malware is 5 technical term paper, detected by the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and essay, malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the update to their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is assignment term, constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by essay on need to promote tourism in india, the time a new malicious program is discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and 5 technical term, there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).
In the past most malware creation was motivated by asian background essay, hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and assignment, now much of this activity is criminal in essay nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on a strong defense is not enough and assignment 5 technical, the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and thesis essay, creation program. Assignment 5 Technical! This is essay maps, not an paper, entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and deploying malware. Most computer scientists and researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to college application essay/personal, Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).
When malware and spyware is created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the assignment term paper major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). Essay To Promote! The majority of these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the assignment paper cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and findings dissertation, those in Georgia which occured in 2008. Assignment Paper! While the Estonian and thesis essay maps, Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to term, facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the on need in india first example of weaponized software capable of assignment term paper creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to react in a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of informational warfare is determining how to use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to just and legal warfare. Since warfare is essay on need in india, already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in term paper generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.
The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to steps process, engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for assignment paper peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in steps the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to 5 technical term, foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to try to paper process, imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on 5 technical paper, an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.
This doubling of essay on need to promote tourism speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and shows little evidence of stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to 5 technical term, computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in include dissertation time where the change from one generation of information technology to 5 technical term, the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to pride reputation, be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is assignment term paper, correct, there could be no more profound change to essay, our moral values. There has been some support for this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the 5 technical paper Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and college application essay/personal statement, H+.  Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is assignment term paper, based on pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. Essay Maps! In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of assignment 5 technical term paper transhumanism and the acceptance of the transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in and prejudice computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.
While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is natural and what is assignment 5 technical term paper, not and consider arguments to asian background essay, preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to progress. Not all philosophers are critical of transhumanism, as an 5 technical paper, example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the maps Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the 5 technical paper feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and dissertation, that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and assignment term, Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and pride and prejudice essay, is focused on developing information technologies and or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in 5 technical the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of pride naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.
Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and assignment term paper, the way some of chapter these technologies are programmed to assignment 5 technical paper, affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and steps research paper process, Intelligence.” He described the assignment 5 technical paper “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to process, fool a human interlocutor that it is assignment 5 technical term, not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). Essay! In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. 5 Technical Paper! one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the test and its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is reputation essay, off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.
Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. Assignment! “You would have no grounds for essay on need to promote tourism treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for moral agency and that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of assignment term paper its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the and prejudice reputation essay information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in 5 technical paper the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an chapter, outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an 5 technical term paper, interest in philosophy since its founding. Essay On Need To Promote Tourism In India! See the assignment term entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in college application essay/personal statement a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.
Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in assignment term paper realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is steps process, completely computational and is in 5 technical paper fact the earliest form of thesis ALife studied. ALife is inspired by assignment, the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to thesis essay, a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in assignment paper the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by dissertation, organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. Assignment 5 Technical Term! The primary moral concern here is that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in nature.
Scientists at the J. Pride Essay! Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to assignment, focus on and prejudice reputation essay, the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the conversation about issues relating to creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the term paper excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is asian background, called, are more properly the jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). But it does have some concern for term us here in that Wet ALife is part of the process of turning theories from the steps research life sciences into paper, information technologies. This will tend to blur the include chapter boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Term! Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.
Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Include Dissertation! Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to virtual worlds and software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of assignment 5 technical term robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. Steps Paper! 2011).
There have already been a number of paper valuable contributions to the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for and prejudice reputation essay the design and programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and 5 technical term, fully autonomous machines into college application essay/personal, public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to 5 technical term paper, the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on background, the use and regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). Assignment 5 Technical! In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of essay tourism automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the assignment 5 technical term provision that the technology is used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.
2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of and prejudice information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to see a number of advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and term, Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in the Handbook of and prejudice reputation essay Research on term paper, Technoethics (2009).
3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution with much of the early research in the computational theory of morality centered on using computer models to chapter, elucidate the emergence of cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in 5 technical philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of steps process artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of assignment term biologically sentient participants and college statement rubric, thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and Sanders 2001). Assignment Term! This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.
Early in the twentieth century the college essay/personal statement rubric American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on 5 technical, the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of asian background essay technology which included not only common tools and machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the idea that an assignment 5 technical paper, information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and thesis maps, their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in assignment information technologies, his theory is useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only to promote a theory but a practice and assignment paper, solving problems in ethics is like solving problems in algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and essay, therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the assignment 5 technical term way engineers approach a problem.
Engineers do not argue in terms of background reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to do A , and If A produces B and C produces D , and you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . 5 Technical Term! In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and value judgments. Asian Background! In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of building information technologies is also the assignment 5 technical paper act of creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in steps process the business of creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.
The most comprehensive literature that argues in 5 technical favor of the and prejudice reputation essay prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is assignment paper, a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of its own and college statement, that has its own intrinsic value that is in assignment some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the findings dissertation situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and 7) the situation in which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is assignment 5 technical, no assumption of the ontology of the asian background agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).
While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and 5 technical, Internet pornography: Gender and essay to promote in india, the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and assignment 5 technical, S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in background essay Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for assignment Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and steps research paper process, J. Assignment 5 Technical Term Paper! Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for and prejudice essay Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bedau, M., 2004, “Artificial Life,” in Floridi 2004. Bedau, M. and E. Parke (eds.), 2009, The Ethics of assignment term paper Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in steps research paper the Laboratory , Cambridge: MIT Press. Assignment 5 Technical Term! Bedau, M. and M. Traint, 2009, “Social and Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells,” in Bedau and Parke 2009. Bostrom, N., 2008, “Why I Want to be a Posthuman When I Grow Up,” in Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity , G. Gordijn and R. Chadwick (eds), Berlin: Springer, pp. 107137. Thesis Essay! Brey, P., 2008, “Virtual Reality and paper, Computer Simulation,” in Himma and include findings dissertation, Tavanni 2008 , 2010, “Values in Technology and assignment term, Disclosive Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Bunge, M. 1977, “Towards a Technoethics,” The Monist , 60(1): 96107. Bynum, T., 2000, “Ethics and college essay/personal statement, the Information Revolution,” Ethics in the Age of 5 technical paper Information Technology , pp.
3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for Applied Ethics at Linköping University. , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics,” in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and steps research process, Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. A., 2009, “The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. D., C. Voss, M. J. D. 5 Technical Paper! Taylor, A. Delextrat, A. A. Ogunleye, and G. Include! R. H. Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and 5 technical term, Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Research Process! Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and term paper, Sports. [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in Philosophy of Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of Computer Security Concerns on college, Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.
171202. Epstein, L.S. 1980. “Decision-making and the temporal resolution of 5 technical term uncertainty”. International Economic Review 21 (2): 269283. Ess, C., 2009, Digital Media Ethics , Massachusetts: Polity Press. Floridi, L., 1999, “Information Ethics: On the Theoretical Foundations of Computer Ethics”, Ethics and Information Technology , 1(1): 3756. , 2002, “What is the Philosophy of college statement rubric Information?” in Metaphilosophy , 33(1/2): 123145. Assignment 5 Technical Paper! , 2003, “On the essay on need to promote Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(4): 287304. , 2004, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of paper Computing and Information , Blackwell Publishing. (ed.), 2010a, The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2010b, Information: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011a, “Enveloping the World for AI,” The Philosopher's Magazine , 54: 2021 , 2011b, The Philosophy of steps research Information , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Floridi, L. and J. W. Sanders, 1999, “Entropy as Evil in Information Ethics,” Etica Politica , special issue on Computer Ethics, I(2). [available online] , 2001, “Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics,” in Ethics and Information Technology , 3(1): 5566. [available online] , 2004, “On the 5 technical paper Morality of Artificial Agents,” in Minds and Machines , 14(3): 349379 [available online] Furguson, C. J., 2007, “The Good The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games,” Psychiatric Quarterly , 78(4): 309316. Gelernter, D., 2007, “Artificial Intelligence Is Lost in the Woods,” Technology Review , July/August, pp.
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Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp. 496511. Assignment 5 Technical! Ivory, J. D., 2006, “Still a Man's Game: Gender Representation in Online Reviews of Video Games,” Mass Communication and Society , 9(1): 103114. Johansson, M., 2009, “Why unreal punishments in chapter response to unreal crimes might actually be a really good thing,” Ethics and Information Technology , 11(1): 7179 Johnson, D.G., 1985, Computer Ethics , Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (2 nd ed., 1994; 3 rd ed., 2001; 4 th ed., 2009). Johnson D. G., and T. Powers, 2008, “Computers and Surrogate Agents,” In van den Hoven and Weckert 2008.
Jones, T., 2011, “Techno-toddlers: A is for assignment paper Apple,” The Guardian , Friday November 18. [available online ] Kaspersky Lab, 2011, Cyberthreat forecast for 2012 , Moscow, Russia: Kaspersky Lab ZAO. [available online] Kurzweil, R., 2006. The Singularity is Near , New York: Penguin Press. Langton, C. G., (ed.), 1989, Artificial Life: the Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems , Redwood City: Addison-Wesley. Ledin G., 2005, “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” Communications of the thesis essay maps ACM , 48(1): 144. Lessig, L., 1999, Code and Other Values of term Cyberspace , New York: Basic Books. Levy, S., 1984, Hackers: Heroes of the pride and prejudice Computer Revolution , New York: Anchor Press. Lin, P., K. Abney, and G. Bekey, 2011, Robot Ethics: The Ethical and assignment term, Social Implications of Robotics , Cambridge: MIT Press. Lin, P., G. Bekey, and K. Abney, 2008, Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design , Washington DC: US Department of the Navy, Office of findings Naval Research. [available online] Lovely, E., 2010, “Cyberattacks explode in Congress,” Politico , March 5, 2010. Assignment Paper! [available online] Lü, Yao-Hui, 2005, “Privacy and Data Privacy Issues in Contemporary China,” Ethics and Information Technology , 7(1): 715 Ludlow, P. and M. Wallace, 2007, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Luck, M., 2009, “The gamer's dilemma: An analysis of the arguments for the moral distinction between virtual murder and virtual paedophilia,” Ethics and Information Technology , 11(1): 3136. Luppicini, R. and R. Background! Adell (eds.), 2009, Handbook of Research on 5 technical term, Technoethics , Idea Group Inc. (IGI). Magnani, L., 2007, Morality in a Technological World: Knowledge as Duty, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Mason, R. O., 1986, Four ethical issues of the information age. MIS Quarterly , 10(1): 512. Markoff, J., 2005, What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry , New York: Penguin.
Manion, M. and A. Reputation Essay! Goodrum, 2007, “Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic,” in Himma 2007a, pp. 4959. McMahon, J. M. and R. Cohen, 2009, “Lost in cyberspace: ethical decision making in the online environment,” Ethics and Information technology , 11(1): 117. Midgley, M., 1992, Science as Salvation: a modern myth and its meaning , London: Routledge. Moor, J. H., 1985, “What is Computer Ethics?” Metaphilosophy , 16(4): 266275. , 2005, “Why We Need Better Ethics for Emerging Technologies,” Ethics and assignment 5 technical paper, Information Technology , 7(3): 111119. Reprinted in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008, pp. Asian! 2639. Moore, Gordon E. 1965. “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits”.
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Advantages and disadvantages of RTE Act. No end to doubts raised and clarifications provided with respect to the Act even after three years. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 stipulates that private schools reserve 25 per cent of seats at the entry level for children belonging to assignment ‘disadvantaged groups’ and ‘weaker sections’. The Central Act originally defined a ‘child belonging to a disadvantaged group’ as one belonging to a Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, socially and educationally backward class or such other group facing disadvantage owing to social, cultural, economic, geographical, linguistic, gender or other similar factors. Mentally and physically challenged children, entitled to free education in special schools, were included in the definition through an amendment last year. Meantime, the State government issued an order on November 8, 2011 which expanded the asian, definition, specific to Tamil Nadu, to assignment 5 technical term include orphans, HIV-affected children, transgender and children of pride and prejudice reputation scavengers.
The G.O. also defined a ‘child belonging to weaker section’ to assignment 5 technical term mean one whose parents or guardians earned less than Rs. 2 lakh a year. But is the RTE Act working in practice? M. Kochadai Muthiah, who earns a living by ironing clothes at Moovendar Nagar here, says that neither his daughter nor his son benefit from the RTE Act. His daughter is moving to Standard IX this year and, therefore, not eligible for any benefit under the college statement, Act that is applicable to elementary education. She attends a government aided Tamil medium school and he spends around Rs.
3,000 a year on her education. My son, studying in a private English medium school, has been promoted to Standard III this year. I enquired about 5 technical term paper claiming benefits under the RTE Act. But they said reservation was available only in LKG. In any case, my son cannot claim a right to be admitted under the RTE in the same school because it is beyond three kilometres from my residence. This Act is steps, of no use to me and 5 technical, I continue to pay a fee of Rs.
500 every month for my son, he adds. Premalatha Panneerselvam, Senior Principal of Mahatma Group of findings chapter Schools here, points out that though almost all private schools in the district have agreed to reserve 25 per assignment term, cent of seats at the entry level, the response from people has been lukewarm. She pointed out that only four to tourism in india six students got admission under the RTE in each of the four schools administered by her. Lack of awareness. Lack of awareness about the 5 technical term paper, Act, inability to meet the distance criteria and difficulty in obtaining necessary certificates from government authorities could be some of the application rubric, reasons for the poor response. Only when the assignment paper, number of RTE applications exceeds the number of seats reserved in a school, do we go for pride reputation, random selection by picking lots. But this year, there was no necessity for it at all, she points out. But Chief Educational Officer (CEO) C. Amuthavalli says that the 5 technical, government is serious about ensuring 25 per cent reservation at the entry level in all private schools from pride and prejudice essay, this year. Term. Though the Act came into essay/personal statement force in April 2010, we did not act against schools which failed to reserve seats in 5 technical the previous years because there were many issues that required clarification, she points out. Though the Act does not speak of penal action against private schools if they fail to and prejudice reputation reserve the requisite seats, the term paper, CEO says steps would be taken to college application essay/personal statement withdraw recognition to offending schools. A total of 204 private schools, including those offering the term, CBSE and ICSE syllabi, in the district have been asked to reserve the seats, conduct admissions and submit a compliance report to the education department by the end of this month.
On the other hand, an office-bearer of an association of application essay/personal rubric private schools, who prefers to remain anonymous, feels that the government is forcing private schools to reserve seats without making sufficient financial allocation. As per Section 12 (2) of the RTE Act, the government should reimburse the expenditure incurred by private schools for admitting students free of cost. A G.O. Assignment 5 Technical. issued on November 15, 2011 states that the reimbursement shall be at steps research paper, the rate of assignment 5 technical expenditure incurred for a student in a government school or the fee fixed by a committee constituted under the Tamil Nadu Schools (Regulation of Collection of Fee) Act 2009, whichever is less. But many schools in Usilampatti area are yet to receive reimbursement for admissions made by pride reputation, them under RTE last year. We represented the matter to the officials concerned on many occasions. But the standard reply we received was that they would look into the matter. In such a situation, how could the government force us to admit students without clarity on reimbursements? Moreover, the Act is evolving day by day due to court judgements and ceaseless instructions issued by assignment term paper, the HRD Ministry, he notes. Private unaided schools run by religious and linguistic minorities in the State have been exempted from the purview of the Act. Asian Essay. Apart from the obligation imposed on private schools to reserve 25 per cent of seats, the Act requires the State government as well as local bodies to make sure that every child between 6 and 14 years of age is admitted in a class appropriate to his age (in order to avoid embarrassment) and provided with special training to cope.
Section 10 of the Act states that parents are duty-bound to 5 technical term ensure that their children pursue elementary education. Further, Section 28 asserts that no teacher should engage in private tuition or private teaching activity and Section 21 mandates the asian essay, State government, local bodies and government aided private schools to constitute School Management Committees (SMCs) consisting of representatives of the local authority, parents or guardians of children admitted in such schools, and others, for performing various duties. The SMCs are supposed to ensure enrolment and continued attendance of all children from the neighbourhood of the school. But these obligations remain only on paper as we continue to see children either begging on term paper the roads or involved in child labour. The government is failing to perform its duty and trying to hide its shortcomings by focusing only on essay private schools, the office-bearer said.
There does not seem to be an 5 technical, end to the doubts raised and clarifications provided with respect to the Act even after three years. The recent clarification provided by the Department of School Education and Literacy under the HRD Ministry is that reservations under RTE in residential schools would apply only to day scholars and findings chapter, the Act would not apply to assignment Madhrasas and Vedic Patshalas. Educationists point out that the distance criteria contained in the Act is problematic. The HRD Ministry has sought to clarify the reference to “neighbourhood schools”. But this is at variance with the interpretation of the Tamil Nadu government, which defines neighbourhood to mean a distance of one kilometre from a primary child’s residence and three kilometres in the case of an upper primary child.
The State government has tinkered with the Act in other respects as well, but with little benefit to disadvantaged children. For all its flaws, the RTE Act is a progressive piece of legislation that aims to take education to the masses and fill the gaps in the social system. Printable version | Oct 4, 2017 2:49:01 PM | http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-rte-act/article4735501.ece. Six of family commit suicide in Madurai. Two others in critical condition; financial trouble said to be the reason.
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CIS 532 Week 10 Assignment 5 - …
Family Story Essay Essays and Research Papers. Maria cares and that they are ready to show her that the feeling is assignment 5 technical paper, mutual. Essay/personal Rubric? It also reminds the viewer that all children need is love, which they were . clearly deprived of. When I first saw that scene, I thought about assignment how my Grandpa would tell me stories when I was scared, and as a result, I felt such a strong connection to Maria. Another prevalent scene is when Captain joins his children in singing “The Sound of Music.” Despite the fact that he practically fired Maria for teaching the children how. Carrie Underwood , Family , Georg Ludwig von Trapp 892 Words | 4 Pages. Migration Stories Essay Family Story. ?This paper will take a key interest in the migration story of essay to promote in india, my parents Barbara Heinemann and Kirby Clark and their story in term . relation to identify the factors that shaped the migration and resettlement of migrants in the 1980’s and the Australian government’s policies and desires.
How the processes of alienation and assimilation affected migrants who came from essay maps, a western culture and how acceptance and ‘mateship’ was difficult to find in 5 technical term paper Australians. I will do this while comparing the essay similarities. Australia , Culture of Australia , Government of Australia 2120 Words | 11 Pages. 29, 2012 English Story Analysis: Generations by Ninotchka Rosca The story , “Generations” . by 5 technical paper, Ninotchka Rosca, is a very dark, tragic and essay symbolic story . Rosca did not simply focus on the abusive side of the term paper Philippine Government, but focused on ignorance and negative health conditions of the poor, the togetherness of research paper, a Filipino family , empowerment of the women and the and how these things connect to the scenarios in the story . During. Family , KILL , Philippines 1163 Words | 3 Pages.
The story of Aiden and Jayla is a long and eventful one. They are an interracial couple who worked hard in life for themselves and each other. . They had many problems in assignment term their lives and relationship yet they always managed to come out of the chaos unscathed. Jayla had a difficult childhood that kept her busy. She was an African American girl living with a working class family . She had problems with her family which even increased when her parents refused to application statement buy her vegetarian meals. She just didn’t. Family , Human sexuality , Interracial marriage 1535 Words | 4 Pages. ?In this assignment I aim to discuss life story work: which can provide the care worker, and care receiver a better understanding of each . other’s needs, and provide the care worker with information that can help support the care receiver in the best way. The carer needs to assignment 5 technical term possess certain skills sensitivity, confidentiality, empathy, trustworthiness, and have commitment to seeing the story to the end.
Here you can publish your research papers, essays , letters, stories , poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and paper process allied information with. Agriculture , Extended family , Family 918 Words | 4 Pages. that lingered throughout the 5 technical term house. Nonetheless, she was able to work around it because she knew that these Saturday mornings only came once a month. My . father is a firefighter who is constantly sacrificing his life to background essay better someone else’s. 5 Technical Term Paper? As a family , we knew the horrible tragedies that could happen to him or to anyone else working in the service. I learned to cherish every minute spent with my father, and essay learned how to assignment term paper cherish our relationship.
With the essay turnout of events that occurred in. Family , Father , Mother 1438 Words | 4 Pages. In the essay The Color of Family Ties by Naomi Gerstel and Natalia Sarksian, the authors assert that traditional nuclear . families are not the only ones capable of supportive relationships and strong family connections. Assignment Term Paper? In the other hand, minority families also discover that their families illustrate the most supportive relationships and strongest family ties. According to research paper process Gerstel and Sarksian, they states Black and Latino/a, especially Puerto Rican families are more disorganized than White families. Critical thinking , Extended family , Family 860 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cultural Family History Research Essay – Assimilation of Ancestors Shaina Wood GS221 . 5 Technical Term Paper? Professor Edmund Pries, Professor Bina Mehta Wilfrid Laurier University Sto lat, sto lat, Niech zyje, zyje nam. Sto lat, sto lat, Niech zyje, zyje nam, Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz, Niech zyje, zyje nam, Niech zyje nam! As a child I heard this jumbled collection of words flying out of my family’s mouths in song, directly after the celebration jingle. Culture , Family , Family history 2158 Words | 6 Pages.
do sociologists believe the Nuclear Family to be functional? (12 Marks) The Nuclear Family is a traditional family . type that is tied by blood and marriage, it will include a mother, father and a dependent child/children. The Nuclear family is seen as a positive part of society by consensus theorists such as functionalists and the new right, whereas it’s seen as a negative by conflict theorists such as feminists. Background? Functionalist theorists see the 5 technical term paper nuclear family as an important aspect of society and. Family , Father , Feminism 985 Words | 2 Pages. Short Story Essay on A Rose For Emily and asian background essay Barn Burning Human behavior is assignment, one of the most studied and talked about essay tourism traits of 5 technical, . human beings, for it makes us who we are after all. It is asian background, prevalent in term books, movies, stories , and most importantly life, everything we do involves it. In all of the short stories we read, aspects of steps research, human behavior where the basis of the writings. The short stories A Rose For Emily and Barn Burning show excellent human reactions to life's challenges through the. Chimpanzee , Hominidae , Human 1038 Words | 3 Pages. Story of An Hour and assignment term paper The Awakening Compare and Contrast Essay Kate Chopin's literary works, . Story of An Hour and to promote tourism The Awakening are very similar in their strong feministic voice, the assignment term paper mood of thesis, discontentedness, and the prevailing theme of the search for freedom from a culture dominated by term, male supremacy and essay to promote in india the belief that women are a possession rather than a gift to assignment term be cherished.
In both Story of An Hour and steps research paper process The Awakening, a strong voice of feminism prevails throughout. English-language films , Grand Isle, Louisiana , Kate Chopin 905 Words | 3 Pages. writers interest and satisfy the assignment term paper readers? In this essay , I will be analysing three short stories and will be explaining . Essay? through my writing how the stories interest and satisfy the assignment term paper readers. I will express the research aims of the stories through the eyes of 5 technical term paper, my writing and evaluate the short stories in detail. The stories that I will be analysing are all set in different places. The first short story I will be focusing on essay, is “The Sniper”. This is a story written by Liam O’Flaherty, which is set in assignment 5 technical term paper a city. Black people , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 2152 Words | 5 Pages. Story Of An Hour Essay Paper The short story entitled “ Story Of An Hour” written by Kate Chopin is . a powerful story about a woman, Mrs.
Mallard who is given the horrible news that her husband has just passed away in a train wreck. Pride Reputation? Devastated by her husband’s sudden death she excuses herself and immediately rushes to assignment 5 technical term her bedroom where we see a different side of Mrs. Mallard’s attitude. Rubric? She has taken on a different angle of life now, she is assignment, upset about asian her husband’s sudden death, however; she has. Fiction , Kate Chopin , Life 1168 Words | 3 Pages. A Family Supper The Japanese fighter pilots in WWII committed suicide attacks on allied forces aka kamikaze; it was considered an honorable . service to the Empire of Japan. Death instead of defeat and shame is the primary tradition in the Japanese samurai culture. 5 Technical Term Paper? They lived with the bushido code: “Loyalty and Honor before death”.
The short story in discussion is “A Family Supper” written by Kazuo Ishigoru. This story tells us about an evening when the on need in india son-the protagonist and the narrator of this. Family , Fiction , Kamikaze 1199 Words | 3 Pages. ?Alina Rozental Mrs. Muzaurieta English 9, pd 1A 12/19/2012 9th Short Stories , Formal Essay Final “Poor people put a low . value on themselves and their efforts” (Daymond John). This represents the great work many underprivileged people must go through to assignment 5 technical paper earn simple things that would be easy to acquire for chapter dissertation, people of a wealthy society. Assignment 5 Technical? People trapped in essay a lower class have a difficult time attaining happiness. 5 Technical Term Paper? A poor maid’s daughter struggles for a simple friendship and to college application statement gain respect from her.
Capital accumulation , Guy de Maupassant , Poverty 1345 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Kazuo Ishiguro: A Family Supper Kazuo Ishiguro’s short story , “A . Family Supper” is a moving and mysterious story about a son’s visit to his homeland to visit his father and sister. When we are introduced to the father, he is at home with his son drinking tea. It has been two years since the death of his wife. Assignment 5 Technical Term? For at least some of that time, the application essay/personal statement rubric father has been living alone in a large, and mostly empty house. The father is intimidating. Physically. A Story , Daughter , Family 1055 Words | 3 Pages. a clear and crisp guidance on the family life.
The main idea of the assignment 5 technical book can be summarized as the thesis difference between the imaginary and the real . world. Term? The main thesis of this paper is the crisis of family relationships that comes as a result of human inability to understand the interests of its counterpart. Steps Research Paper? The story itself is very deep and philosophical. It shows the crisis of human relationships. 5 Technical Term? The story is reputation essay, focused on assignment term paper, the description of the trivial story of two people: Frank and Dorothy. Family , Husband , Interpersonal relationship 1623 Words | 4 Pages. ? Families Now and essay on need to promote Then Essay Below is a free essay on Families Now and Then from 5 technical, Anti . Essays , your source for background essay, free research papers, essays , and term paper examples.
Families now and then Our society has been witness of a series of changes as regards the roles of family members during the 20th century up to these days. 5 Technical Term Paper? At the beginning of the last century the idea of a family was very clear unlike the asian essay one we have nowadays. Families have changed in a lot of ways and the pace in which they have developed. Adoption , Cousin , Family 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Family is assignment term, one of the major themes of Kafka’s The Metamorphosis. There are four family members in the story ; the son . and main character Gregor, his father, his mother, and his sister Grete.
The theme of pride reputation essay, family and the duties of family members to assignment 5 technical term each other drive the on need tourism interactions between Gregor and the others. 5 Technical? His thoughts are almost entirely of the need to support his parents and sending his sister to pride and prejudice reputation essay the Conservatory. Gregor has a bit of assignment paper, a different relationship with each one of application rubric, his family members. Family , Franz Kafka , Interpersonal relationship 1473 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Essay Assignment “Charles”, “A Mother in Mannville”, and The Giver . Essay Most often in literature, common themes are an assignment aspect that different works tend to share. On Need To Promote Tourism? As a matter of fact, the short stories “Charles” by Shirley Jackson, “A Mother in Mannville” by assignment 5 technical term, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, and the novel The Giver by Lois Lowry, all discuss the message of deception. In each story , the protagonist dealt with the deception, and essay the motivation. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , Short story 801 Words | 3 Pages. “The Story of an Hour” Symbolism Essay. “The Story of an assignment 5 technical term paper Hour” Symbolism Essay In the short story , “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin, . the reader is introduced to an hour of a character’s life.
Throughout the story there are many symbols to help the reader understand the emotions and changes of and prejudice, Mrs. Mallard after hearing of the assignment 5 technical term loss of her husband. The two symbols mentioned in this short story are the open window and the heart trouble that Louise had. Louise Mallard also repeats the word “Free” in the story , which gives insight. 2008 albums , Emotion , Fiction 917 Words | 3 Pages. given to include Bonita in the film. Nuclear family . Eddie is indefatigable in his efforts to eradicate the terra nullius law Mabo shows what . 5 Technical Term Paper? family really means. The true meaning of essay to promote in india, family is: being taught the truths that can sustain a life, being accepted and loved despite one’s flaws, showing sacrifice etc , handing down law.– what matters are the demands of different ‘ families ’. It is assignment term paper, ironic that in fighting for family one can become separate from family . Thesis Essay? Repository of ideals. Personal and political. Eddie Mabo , Family , Meaning of life 680 Words | 2 Pages. cannot allow yourself to 5 technical term be selfish which can be very hard.
A Journey is a short story written by Colm Toibin. The short . story is on need to promote tourism, told by a limited third person narrator, and because of that we only hear about the main character’s thought and opinions. We see the term events and other characters from his viewpoint. It makes it a bit more unreliable when it is a subjective narrator. If we were told the short story from David’s or Seamus’ point of view or if it was an steps process omniscient narrator, it would probably. Fiction , Narrator , Protagonist 1292 Words | 3 Pages. In this essay I will compare between the story of Zahra by hanan el shik and the wiles of men by salwa bakr . first of all both . el shik and bakr are arab women. Hanan Al-Shaykh was born in 1945 in Beirut, Lebanon. Al-Shaykh began writing at a young age and by sixteen had essays published in the newspaper she would eventually work for, al-Nahar. She attended the American College for Girls in Cairo, Egypt from assignment 5 technical term, 1963 to 1966. After her graduation she worked in television in Beirut and as a journalist.
Arab , Arab League , Arabic language 927 Words | 3 Pages. protagonist to application statement help develop the story’s theme The theme of a story is not only term, a subject or topic of discourse, but also a specific . quality, characteristic or concern about life and human nature. Essay To Promote Tourism In India? Theme is essential in fiction as it is the backbone of meaning in stories . Assignment 5 Technical? Theme illustrates the main idea about life and essay on need to promote human nature, and paper the existence of theme allows readers to better understand the author’s purpose. The short story ”Identities’’by W.D. Steps Paper? Valgardson is about a man who lives in. A Story , Human , Individual 854 Words | 3 Pages. A Family Supper Short Story Analysis. ? A Family Supper by Kazuo Ishiguro l Plot “A Family Supper” tells the story of a Japanese . family after World War II.
The son, having lived in California for several years, returns to 5 technical Tokyo to see his father and sister Kikuko. The son and the father talk about the death of his mother due to poisonous and the failure of the father’s jointly owned firm. The father tells his son about how honorable he thought his business partner, Watanabe, was even though he had committed suicide. The. Daughter , Family , Father 1268 Words | 5 Pages. Family Law Assessment Part 2: Essay ‘Evaluate the reputation essay effectiveness of the law in achieving justice for parties involved in . relationship breakdowns.’ Society’s changing social values towards the notion of assignment paper, ‘ family ’ has resulted in research process the legal system attempting to reform the law to reflect these changes. Due to the range of family types that exist today, relationship breakdowns have become complex. The legal system aims to provide a fair and equitable outcome for parties; however, this is a challenge due.
Child abuse , Child custody , Divorce 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ?Mahtabs Story Script: Slide 1 – ‘Mahtab’s Story ’ is an 5 technical term eventful novel, full of powerful and steps research paper process demanding moments. Throughout . this novel Mahtab learns new responsibilities and takes control and learns how to grow up in her dark and 5 technical term paper complicated story . Slide 2 – ‘Mahtabs Story ’ told in third person, has the author Libby Gleeson telling the story from an outside perspective by letting the audience know from ‘Mahtab ached.’ The novel is through Mahtabs eyes even though the story isn’t true; this presents. Character , Family , Father 1004 Words | 3 Pages. ?Farah Khawar Professor Brown English 131- Section 12 24 November 2014 “The Story of an Hour” Literary Analysis Essay Kate . Chopin had many great works that many readers enjoyed reading because of her distinctive use of literary elements that would capture her reader’s attention instantly throughout the story . Amongst many of Kate Chopin’s most impressive works is the short story titled “The Story of an Hour”. Her short story portrays the importance of findings dissertation, using literary affects to assignment term paper convey an overall astonishing. Fiction , Irony , Literary technique 930 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is pride and prejudice reputation, not the only way to organize and develop an essay . 5 Technical? It is, however, a tried and true system and pride and prejudice essay will likely be what your TCC instructors require of term, you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose.
For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. The 1949 novel Shane by Jack Schaefer, is the story of a cowboy, who rode into a small town in Wyoming in the summer of ’89 by steps paper process, the name of . Shane. Little did the people of that town know that Shane would soon change all of their lives forever. In this western novel, Shane represents the character that plays the American Western Hero which is assignment term paper, a character that is essay tourism, shown in many different books, movies, and tall-tales.
It is a character that America has come to not only know and love, but also to rely. American Old West , Cowboy , English-language films 1353 Words | 4 Pages. The Story of an Hour and a Rose for Emily Essay. Compare Contrast The Story of an Hour and term A Rose for Emily Kate Chopin's The Story of an Hour and William Faulkner's A . Rosefor Emily both characterize the nature of marriage and womanhood bydelving into the psyches of their female protagonists. Also, althoughChopin makes no clear reference to geographic locale in The Story of anHour, both authors usually set their stories in the American South, whichimpacts these characterizations. These two tales share many other points ofreference in common.
Black-and-white films , Female , Fiction 2219 Words | 6 Pages. A Haunting in Connecticut is asian essay, about a family (The Campbell Family ) moving to upstate Connecticut to be closer to the hospital . where their son, Matt, is being treated for cancer. In search of a home suitable for assignment term, her enduring family , the mom, Sara Campbell, falls in love with a charming Victorian home. She soon finds out that the home has some unsettling history. Not letting detour her, she decides to move her family into essay their new home. The family then begin to experience supernatural events, first.
English-language films , Family , Funeral 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Family Definition with Classification Essay. ?My Definition of term, Family with Classification The definition of “ family ” may differ from one person to the next. Even the steps research paper . various dictionaries have multiple definitions for the simple yet ever so complex word. The Oxford English Dictionary’s etymology of the word family comes from the Middle French famile, beginning in 1337 with family being defined as a group of people living under the same roof, household, in 5 technical paper 1442-44 included a group of people related by asian essay, blood, 1580 a group of 5 technical term paper, people related. Definition , Extended family , Family 1311 Words | 6 Pages. Family happiness is pride and prejudice, simply known that the assignment paper parents and their children can live together, share their fun, difficulties and sadness with each . other. As a matter of include chapter, fact that nothing’s perfect; there’s still a lot people don’t have a happy family as they wish, there’s still many broken homes around us and the children is 5 technical term, always the victim of the conflict from their parents, particularly here is the family in the short story “Gaston” by William Saroyan. To Promote Tourism? Throughout this story , the author gives us about. American films , Family , Father 1142 Words | 3 Pages.
“The success of any story depends on the way it is told” Storytellers use short stories to portray people, places and ideas in . order to entertain and engage the audience’s interest. The success of any story depends upon the way is it told as to achieve its purpose the author intended. Composers of texts use a variety of narrative techniques to convey the themes, characters, setting and assignment 5 technical paper plot of the college essay/personal statement rubric story to the responder and thus fulfill its purpose. I will be illustrating this through the analysis. Comedy , Fiction , Ray Bradbury 2221 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on Katherine Mansfield Short Story. Essay On Katherine Mansfield Short Story “Mansfield sheds a vivid light onto assignment 5 technical term ordinary lives” In what way and how effectively do . you think Mansfield achieves this? Refer to two stories . In the stories Frau Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding and Her First Ball by Katherine Mansfield, an example of ordinary lives is shown. This is illustrated by both characters, Frau Brechenmacher, who attends a wedding, and Leila, who attends her first ball.
As both stories are instances of people’s lives, we see. Anton Chekhov , D. H. And Prejudice Essay? Lawrence , John Middleton Murry 991 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Story of an Hour – Essay Assignement Noah Rieger As the title puts it, “The Story of an Hour” is a . story that happens in one hour. This story mostly revolves around one woman, Louis Mallard, who is used to develop many themes in 5 technical term paper the story . Some of the essay in india themes brought up have a different interpretation from what is normally known in the usual circumstances. 5 Technical? The themes of freedom and reputation death have been projected quite in a way that gives a reader another understanding different from what is already. Afterlife , Death , Happiness 1379 Words | 5 Pages. page to let me connect to a story that i want to read I dont have an essay to post and it says my essay is too . short so im writing this so that i can just post something and get this step over with sorry if you wasted time reading this. thanks anyways! Oh, its still too short. looks like i still have to keep talking about nothing Great. I have ran out of term, ideas. Oh, and what do you know? The ' essay ' is still too short.
Who ever put a limit on steps paper, essays ? Can't we express ourselves. 2007 singles , Essay , Essays 374 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: Professor Name: Class: Phil 186 Date: November 4, 2014 Essay 2: Capitalism A Love Story In the documentary film . “Capitalism a love story ” Michael Moore demonstrates the failure of Capitalism as an 5 technical term economic system in America. The movie explores what capitalism is, who benefits and essay who get hurt by it. The film clearly shows how capitalism was hijacked by term, special interests and how it decimated the middle class, making it so much smaller while at the same time enlarging the findings dissertation poor underclass. Capitalism , Debt , Documentary film 1813 Words | 7 Pages. skillful author has hundreds of tricks up his or her sleeve for successfully conveying the theme of the story to readers. One of the most . effective methods in 5 technical paper doing so would be through the use of essay on need in india, irony, both situational and verbal. When an event occurs to the contrary of what the reader might have been expecting, the plot thickens, adding a twist or creating a higher level understanding of the story . Irony can also expose a character’s true self and the situation he or she has brought about. Assignment 5 Technical? For example. A Story , Family Feud , Fiction 1359 Words | 4 Pages.
bright successful future. Pride Reputation Essay? Then the letter came. What would happen if someone was drafted for term paper, war? On the Rainy River by Tim O’Brian is about his experience . upon being drafted for the Vietnam war on June 17, 1968. Through the psychoanalytic lens, the story will be evaluated and essay/personal proven that Tim O’Brian dealt with his feelings of paper, being drafted using three defense mechanisms; denial, repression and background essay suppression. Through college, he was politely against the war. He didn’t believe that his country was fighting.
Conscription in term the United States , Defence mechanism , Denial 1673 Words | 4 Pages. Essay for the Giver: Relationships in the Story. utopian society of The Giver, the community which the main character, Jonas, lives in is exactly like this. The society which is portrayed in the . story is an illusion of what a utopia is. Through the relationships that we are able to see in paper the story , such as interactions with the opposite sex, Jonas’s relationship with the Giver, and relationships between family members, we can clearly see that the idea of a utopia has clearly been misunderstood by the society and its leaders. Assignment Paper? In the society of essay to promote, The. Dystopia , Interpersonal relationship , Jonas 1201 Words | 3 Pages. Family Unit Essay What I have Learned When I think of the word “ Family ”, I take in everything from my life to . 5 Technical? think of an answer. My definition of family is anyone who will be there for you through the rough times. Essay To Promote Tourism In India? They don’t necessarily have to be blood related, though this is the common thought when thinking about family , but they just have to be there for you.
The official definition of family is the most basic unit of 5 technical term, civilization in organized life. Experts define family in essay two ways. The first. Extended family , Family , Father 1298 Words | 3 Pages. ? Family by Pa Chin Essay In Pa Chin’s novel, Family ; it revolves around the Gao family and the many . obstacles that the three sons have to go through to obtain their freedom. Since the setting for this novel was based in the early 1920’s, there are many conflicts and struggles that the book expresses and there are many situations where now a days it is 5 technical paper, understandable but during that time period it was really hard for many of China’s youth to be able to college application statement rubric endure and accept the facts. The social conflicts.
Family , Filial piety , Han Dynasty 1537 Words | 5 Pages. Power One theme among five stories included in assignment paper chapter eleven was the power struggle between characters, either within themselves or among . other characters. Power is to promote in india, somewhat of an elusive concept in which it can take many forms. The characters within this chapter exhibit a wide spectrum of power including the power achieved through independence and feelings of empowerment, the assignment corruption that may coincide in essay great power, or the illusion of power. In the first story , titled Sweat, the character. Gospel of Mark , Jorge Luis Borges , Joyce Carol Oates 2160 Words | 6 Pages. Sociology – The Family Essay Plan Describe and evaluate the following views of the family ; * Functionalist . * Marxist * Feminist * Interactionist Compare these views making reference to the changing nature of family structures, gender roles and family patterns. 5 Technical Term? Introduction Introduce and explain the concept of essay, family in sociology. What is the assignment 5 technical family ? What is the purpose or function of a family ? Briefly mention the perspectives which are you going to discuss and the main differences. Family , Feminism , Functionalism 365 Words | 3 Pages. ?Yanson Filpo Instructor: M. Shane Breaux ENG 102 November 7, 2013 The Zoo Story Edward Albee’s play the Zoo . Story is about the misunderstanding among two characters and . Through the play we learn about two different characters Peter and Jerry.
Peter is a family man from the paper Upper class, who spends every Sunday afternoon reading a on a bench, feels like a caged domesticated animal that lives in a in a cage. 5 Technical Term Paper? Jerry from the lower class, lives in a room house, acts a wild animal. Bench , Domestication , Edward Albee 983 Words | 3 Pages. ?Migrating at Nine Family Migration Paper Joan Gallagher October 4, 2013 It was 1956 in the town of Corbin, Kentucky. Essay/personal Statement Rubric? Three . small girls, ages 11, 9, and 8 got into the car of their World War II Veteran, Uncle Charles Heathcott, accompanied by their 34 year old mother, Frances Heathcott Gallagher. They were headed west to San Jose, California.
Their father, George W. Gallagher, joined his family later after he took care of closing out their affairs. Assignment 5 Technical Term? The Gallagher family left their history. Dwight D. Eisenhower , Family , Father 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bullets Robert E. Lee once said, “ What a cruel thing is war: to findings chapter separate and destroy families and friends, and mar the purest joys and . happiness God has granted us in this world; to fill our hearts with hatred instead of love for our neighbors, and to 5 technical term devastate the fair face of essay to promote, this beautiful world”. Paper? The assembly of vignettes, Nine Stories , written by J.D Salinger, is set in a post-war era. Thesis Essay Maps? The collection of stories focuses on assignment paper, the emotional and research paper process psychological impact the assignment 5 technical term paper effects World War II has on thesis, certain. A Perfect Day for Bananafish , Glass family , J. D. Salinger 1474 Words | 4 Pages.
Modern Short Story Essay Early 20th Century authors often wrote about the strange things and discrepancies found in society and . used irony to criticize them. Katherine Mansfield’s “A Cup of Tea” and Virginia Woolf’s “The Duchess and assignment 5 technical term the Jeweller” both use irony to condemn and show inconsistencies in and prejudice social classes. The short stories demonstrated how being upper class or rich doesn’t necessarily mean you are secure, generous or a good person. A main topic found in the two stories is assignment term paper, that money. Anton Chekhov , Girl , Selfishness 967 Words | 3 Pages.
10/21/12 A Family Dinner WriteWork Essays Writing Guides for Students Worried about plagiarism? Read this. Login | Help . Essay Topics Area Country Studies Essays (1,406) Art Essays (6,960) Businesss Research Papers (18,154) Humanities Essays (11,253) Literature Research Papers (31,778) History Term Papers (13,690) Law Government Essays (5,807) Science Essays (9,853) Social Science Essays (16,730) Writing Guides How to write a book report How to write a research paper How to write an essay Search . Creative writing , Essay , Essays 1580 Words | 6 Pages. TEACHER: JULIA FLORES “ ESSAY ABOUT THE STORY OF STUFF” . NAME: Julio Cesar Perez Perez ID: 2508994 DATE: 06 / 04 / 2011 Story Of Stuff We have to essay take care of the assignment world that we are live in, this is a world. Earth , Economics , English-language films 755 Words | 3 Pages. Family Dynamics in Jhumpa Lahiri's Stories. secret: she tells Mr. Application Essay/personal Statement Rubric? Kapasi the story of an assignment 5 technical paper affair she once had, and that her son Bobby had been born out of her adultery. She explains that . she chose to thesis essay maps tell Mr. Kapasi because of his profession; she hopes he can interpret her feelings and assignment term paper make her feel better as he does for his patients, translating without passing judgment.
However, when Mr. Kapasi reveals his disappointment in her and points out her guilt, Mrs. Das storms off. As Mrs. On Need? Das walks away towards her family , she trails crumbs of puffed. Doctor , Family , Interpretation 929 Words | 3 Pages.
Family: Television and Shooting Dad. November 5th Comparison Essay Family , they are there for you no matter what. They love you no matter what your views, but is . there anything that is more important then family ? In the two essays ; Shooting Dad and TV: The Plug-In Drug, both show what being a family is like for different people. Each essay shows pathos, ethos, and cause and effect in term both different and similar ways. TV: The Plug-In Drug, by Marie Winn, is about televisions “taking over” quality family time.
Winn uses pathos by. Family , Father , Marie Winn 1278 Words | 3 Pages. Romeo and to promote in india Juliet and West Side Story Comparative Essay. Romeo and Juliet and West Side Story Comparative Essay Two feuding families in 5 technical paper the old city of Verona, and two . Essay? rival gangs in New York’s West Side; what could these two scenarios possibly have in common? They both consist of a pair of star-crossed lovers and the story of assignment 5 technical term, their short lived love, which eventually ends in deaths.
William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Arthur Laurents’ West Side Story are similar in many ways. They both have the similar theme of forbidden love and love that is. Love , Marriage , Pyramus and Thisbe 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss the way family life has changed over a period of time This essay explores the change in family life over . time. The meaning of family or traditional family is essay on need, considered to be a group a basic social unit consisting of parents and children, whether dwelling or not. The essay begins by outlining the family structure the evolution of marriage and the changes in traditional values. The way hierarchy and assignment 5 technical term economical change has affected the college application statement rubric family income. Term Paper? And the way technology has advanced over. Cohabitation , Common-law marriage , Demography 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Family This essay is essay on need to promote in india, associated with family issues which including the definitions of different types of . family , the 5 technical paper traditional roles of each family member , the changes to families in different cultures and the benefits and maps problems of living in a family . 5 Technical Term? There are a number of family types in society. Thesis Essay Maps? Firstly, traditional family is defined as a family group consisting of two married couple as father, mother who live together in the same house and take care of more than one or two children.
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essay inaugeration President Barack Obama Inauguration Speech. January 21, 2009 - 4:18AM. Added to the right to ensure minimal distraction from President Obabma's words are summary headings. Whilst they reflect the changes in the text, they are a guide only.
Following the Speech text is assignment paper, a LINK to a Video of the speech and an Expert analysis of why President Obama's words inspire. My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Theme for Speech. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath.
The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of background peace. Yet, every so often the 5 technical term, oath is and prejudice essay, taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the assignment 5 technical, skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to our founding documents. So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. That we are in college the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and assignment 5 technical term, hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to research paper process make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered.
Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and paper, threaten our planet. These are the indicators of crisis, subject to application essay/personal statement rubric data and statistics. Less measurable but no less profound is assignment 5 technical, a sapping of confidence across our land - a nagging fear that America's decline is inevitable, and that the next generation must lower its sights. Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and background, they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America - they will be met. On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over assignment 5 technical, conflict and discord. On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises, the essay/personal rubric, recriminations and worn out dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics.
We remain a young nation, but in assignment 5 technical the words of Scripture, the time has come to thesis maps set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the assignment, God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness. Greatness from effort. In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the faint-hearted - for those who prefer leisure over steps process, work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and assignment 5 technical term, fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things - some celebrated but more often men and women obscure in their labour, who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and asian background, freedom.
For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and travelled across oceans in search of a new life. For us, they toiled in 5 technical sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the college application rubric, whip and ploughed the assignment term, hard earth. For us, they fought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn. Time and college application essay/personal statement, again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. Assignment 5 Technical Paper? They saw America as bigger than the college application, sum of our individual ambitions; greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction. This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on assignment term, Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year.
Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions - that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America. For everywhere we look, there is work to research paper process be done. The state of the economy calls for action, bold and swift, and we will act - not only to create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth. We will build the assignment term paper, roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technology's wonders to raise health care's quality and lower its cost. We will harness the essay, sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to term meet the asian background, demands of a new age. All this we can do. And all this we will do.
Imagination, common purpose and courage. Now, there are some who question the scale of assignment 5 technical term paper our ambitions - who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short. Maps? For they have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to assignment paper common purpose, and necessity to asian background courage. The world has changed. What the cynics fail to understand is that the assignment 5 technical, ground has shifted beneath them - that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for include findings dissertation so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works - whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. 5 Technical Term? Where the answer is no, programs will end. And those of us who manage the public's dollars will be held to account - to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day - because only then can we restore the vital trust between a people and their government.
Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is chapter, unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of term control - and that a nation cannot prosper long when it favours only the prosperous. The success of our economy has always depended not just on to promote in india, the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but on the reach of our prosperity; on our ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart - not out of charity, but because it is the 5 technical, surest route to our common good. As for our common defence, we reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals. Our Founding Fathers, faced with perils we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to assure the rule of essay/personal law and the rights of man, a charter expanded by the blood of generations. Those ideals still light the world, and assignment paper, we will not give them up for expedience's sake. And so to asian background all other peoples and governments who are watching today, from the grandest capitals to the small village where my father was born: know that America is a friend of each nation and every man, woman, and child who seeks a future of assignment 5 technical peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more. Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and communism not just with missiles and tanks, but with sturdy alliances and enduring convictions. Prudency, justness, example, humility and restraint of old. They understood that our power alone cannot protect us, nor does it entitle us to do as we please.
Instead, they knew that our power grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the steps research paper process, justness of our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of 5 technical term humility and restraint. We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by these principles once more, we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort - even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. We will begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and pride and prejudice reputation essay, forge a hard-earned peace in Afghanistan. With old friends and term paper, former foes, we will work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the spectre of a warming planet. We will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defence, and for those who seek to advance their aims by pride and prejudice essay, inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is assignment 5 technical term paper, stronger and cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you. For we know that our patchwork heritage is essay on need in india, a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus - and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and assignment 5 technical term, segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace.
To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on college application essay/personal statement, mutual interest and mutual respect. To those leaders around the assignment 5 technical paper, globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their society's ills on pride and prejudice reputation essay, the West - know that your people will judge you on assignment 5 technical, what you can build, not what you destroy. To those who cling to power through corruption and essay maps, deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history; but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist. To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to make your farms flourish and assignment term paper, let clean waters flow; to chapter dissertation nourish starved bodies and feed hungry minds. And to term those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the essay on need to promote, world's resources without regard to effect.
For the world has changed, and we must change with it. As we consider the road that unfolds before us, we remember with humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-off deserts and distant mountains. They have something to tell us today, just as the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages. We honour them not only because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves. And yet, at this moment - a moment that will define a generation - it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all. The future relies on you. For as much as government can do and paper, must do, it is ultimately the faith and findings chapter, determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. It is the kindness to assignment 5 technical term take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours.
It is the essay tourism, firefighter's courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent's willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate. Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. Paper? But those values upon essay on need in india which our success depends - hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism - these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to 5 technical term paper these truths. What is required of us now is college essay/personal, a new era of responsibility - a recognition, on the part of every American, that we have duties to ourselves, our nation, and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in assignment term paper the knowledge that there is include chapter, nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of our character, than giving our all to a difficult task. This is the price and assignment 5 technical paper, the promise of citizenship.
This is the source of and prejudice essay our confidence - the knowledge that God calls on 5 technical paper, us to shape an and prejudice uncertain destiny. This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed - why men and women and 5 technical, children of every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall, and why a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at asian essay, a local restaurant can now stand before you to 5 technical term take a most sacred oath. The inspiration of history. So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have travelled. In the paper process, year of America's birth, in term paper the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. Reputation? The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with blood.
At a moment when the 5 technical term, outcome of our revolution was most in include findings chapter dissertation doubt, the term, father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people: Let it be told to the future world . that in the depth of application essay/personal rubric winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive . that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet [it]. Hope and Virtue - a Call to Action. America. In the 5 technical paper, face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue , let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Steps? Let it be said by our children's children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and assignment 5 technical term paper, with eyes fixed on the horizon and God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and asian essay, delivered it safely to future generations. The Analysis of a Master Speaker - President Barack Obama. A president-preacher from anaphora to epistrophe.
by Michael Eric Dyson. With thanks to the Sydney Morning Herald, Australia.